spotEnsembleSingleSoftMax: Single Ensemble: SoftMax

Description Usage Arguments Details Value References


SoftMax Algorithm - Select a model based on a probability proportional to its success (i.e. reward)
The default reward function is spotConfig$seq.ensemble.feed.func<-spotFeedback.reward.bern.
Two parameters have to be set. The parameter alpha is used as a multiplier when a models reward is updated:
The default value is spotConfig$seq.softmax.alpha <- 0.5.
The parameter tau is used to control exploration/exploitation trade-off. SoftMax is completely greedy with tau=0, and completely random with tau going to infinity:
The default value is spotConfig$seq.softmax.tau <- 1.


spotEnsembleSingleSoftMax(rawB, mergedB, design, spotConfig, fit = NULL)



unmerged data


merged data


new design points which should be predicted


global list of all options, needed to provide data for calling functions


if an existing model ensemble fit is supplied, the models will not be build based on data, but only evaluated with the existing fits (on the design data). To build the model, this parameter has to be NULL. If it is not NULL the parameters mergedB and rawB will not be used at all in the function.


This is a "single ensemble", meaning that in every sequential step only one model in the ensemble is trained and evaluated. The target is to actively "learn" which of the models are most suitable, based on their individual success.
The models used are specified in the spotConfig list, for instance:
spotConfig$seq.ensemble.predictors = c(spotPredictRandomForest, spotPredictEarth, spotPredictForrester, spotPredictDace)
To specify the settings of each individual model, set:
seq.ensemble.settings = list(list(setting=1),list(setting=2),list(setting=3),list(setting=4))
Any parameters set in each of the corresponding lists (here: 4 individual lists) will overwrite settings in the main spotConfig list, when the concerned model function is called.


returns the list spotConfig


- Sutton, R. S.; Barto, A. G.: Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction (Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning). MIT Press. URL book/the-book.html. 1998.
- Joannes Vermorel and Mehryar Mohri. 2005. Multi-armed bandit algorithms and empirical evaluation. In Proceedings of the 16th European conference on Machine Learning (ECML'05), Joao Gama, Rui Camacho, Pavel B. Brazdil, Alipio Mario Jorge, and Luis Torgo (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 437-448.
- M. Friese, M. Zaefferer, T. Bartz-Beielstein, O. Flasch, P. Koch, W. Konen, and B. Naujoks. Ensemble based optimization and tuning algorithms. In F. Hoffmann and E. Huellermeier, editors, Proceedings 21. Workshop Computational Intelligence, p. 119-134. Universitaetsverlag Karlsruhe, 2011.

Search within the SPOT package
Search all R packages, documentation and source code

Questions? Problems? Suggestions? or email at

Please suggest features or report bugs with the GitHub issue tracker.

All documentation is copyright its authors; we didn't write any of that.