point.interactions: Calculate point interactions for area-interaction models

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples


This function calculates point interactions at presence locations and quadrature points required for fitting a regularisation path of area-interaction models.





A design matrix generated using the ppmdat function.


The radius of point interactions.


An optional binary matrix used in calculating point interactions indicating whether locations are available (availability = 1) or not (availability = 0). If no such matrix is provided, availability is automatically generated with all values set to 1 at a special resolution of half of r.


Theoretically, the point interaction t(y) at a point y is calculated as the proportion of available area in a circular region Y or radius r centred at y that overlaps with circles of radius r centred at other presence locations (Baddeley & Turner, 2005).

This function discretises the study region at the same spatial resolution as availability by defining the matrix occupied, a fine grid of locations spanning the study region initialised to zero. The values of occupied within a distance of r of each presence location are then augmented by 1, such that occupied then contains the total number of presence locations with which each grid location interacts. To prevent unavailable areas from being included in the calculation of point interactions, the values of occupied at grid locations for which availability = 0 are set to zero.

t(y) is then estimated as the proportion of available grid locations within Y that overlap circular regions around other presence locations.

The availability matrix is particularly useful for regions that have inaccessible areas (e.g. due to the presence of ocean or urban areas).

Finer resolutions of the availability matrix will yield more precise estimates but at a cost of greater computation time.


A vector of point interactions corresponding to the locations contained in the dat.ppm argument.


Ian W. Renner


Baddeley, A.J. & Turner, R. (2005). Spatstat: an R package for analyzing spatial point patterns. Journal of Statistical Software 12, 1-42.

See Also

ppmlasso for fitting a regularisation path of area-interaction models


species.ppm = ppmdat(sp.xy = BlueMountains$eucalypt, back.xy = BlueMountains$env, 
sp.scale = 1, file.name = "Sp PPM Data") # generate design matrix
species.int = point.interactions(species.ppm, 2, BlueMountains$availability)

ppmlasso documentation built on May 2, 2019, 8:20 a.m.