R/chimeras.R

Defines functions isShift isShiftedPair isShiftDenovo removeBimeraDenovo isBimeraDenovoTable isBimeraDenovo isBimera

Documented in isBimera isBimeraDenovo isBimeraDenovoTable isShiftDenovo removeBimeraDenovo

################################################################################
#' Determine if input sequence is a bimera of putative parent sequences.
#' 
#' This function attempts to find an exact bimera of the parent sequences that
#' matches the input sequence. A bimera is a two-parent chimera, in which the
#' left side is made up of one parent sequence, and the right-side made up of
#' a second parent sequence. If an exact bimera is found TRUE is returned, 
#' otherwise FALSE. Bimeras that are one-off from exact are also identified if
#' the allowOneOff argument is TRUE.
#' 
#' @param sq (Required). A \code{character(1)}.
#'  The sequence being evaluated as a possible bimera.
#' 
#' @param parents (Required). Character vector.
#'  A vector of possible "parent" sequence that could form the left and right
#'  sides of the bimera.
#'   
#' @param allowOneOff (Optional). A \code{logical(1)}. Default is TRUE.
#'   If TRUE, sq will be identified as a bimera if it is one mismatch or indel away 
#'   from an exact bimera.
#' 
#' @param minOneOffParentDistance (Optional). A \code{numeric(1)}. Default is 4.
#'   Only sequences with at least this many mismatches to sq are considered as possible
#'   "parents" when flagging one-off bimeras. There is no such screen when identifying
#'   exact bimeras.
#'   
#' @param maxShift (Optional). A \code{numeric(1)}. Default is 16.
#'   Maximum shift allowed when aligning sequences to potential "parents".
#'   
#' @return \code{logical(1)}.
#'  TRUE if sq is a bimera of two of the parents. Otherwise FALSE.
#'
#' @seealso 
#'  \code{\link{isBimeraDenovo}}, \code{\link{removeBimeraDenovo}}
#'  
#' @export
#' 
#' @examples
#' derep1 = derepFastq(system.file("extdata", "sam1F.fastq.gz", package="dada2"))
#' sqs1 <- getSequences(derep1)
#' isBimera(sqs1[[20]], sqs1[1:10])
#' 
isBimera <- function(sq, parents, allowOneOff=TRUE, minOneOffParentDistance=4, maxShift=16) {
  rval <- C_is_bimera(sq, parents, allowOneOff, minOneOffParentDistance, 
              getDadaOpt("MATCH"), getDadaOpt("MISMATCH"), getDadaOpt("GAP_PENALTY"), maxShift)
  return(rval)
}

################################################################################
#' Identify bimeras from collections of unique sequences.
#' 
#' This function is a wrapper around \code{\link{isBimera}} for collections of unique
#' sequences (i.e. sequences with associated abundances). Each sequence is evaluated 
#' against a set of "parents" drawn from the sequence collection that are sufficiently
#' more abundant than the sequence being evaluated. A logical vector is returned, with
#' an entry for each input sequence indicating whether it was (was not) consistent with
#' being a bimera of those more abundant "parents".
#' 
#' @param unqs (Required). A \code{\link{uniques-vector}} or any object that can be coerced
#'  into one with \code{\link{getUniques}}.
#'   
#' @param minFoldParentOverAbundance (Optional). A \code{numeric(1)}. Default is 1.
#'   Only sequences greater than this-fold more abundant than a sequence can be its 
#'   "parents".
#'   
#' @param minParentAbundance (Optional). A \code{numeric(1)}. Default is 8.
#'   Only sequences at least this abundant can be "parents".
#' 
#' @param allowOneOff (Optional). A \code{logical(1)}. Default is TRUE.
#'   If TRUE, sequences that have one mismatch or indel to an exact bimera are also
#'   flagged as bimeric.
#' 
#' @param minOneOffParentDistance (Optional). A \code{numeric(1)}. Default is 4.
#'   Only sequences with at least this many mismatches to the potential bimeric sequence
#'   considered as possible "parents" when flagging one-off bimeras. There is
#'   no such screen when considering exact bimeras.
#'   
#' @param maxShift (Optional). A \code{numeric(1)}. Default is 16.
#'   Maximum shift allowed when aligning sequences to potential "parents".
#' 
#' @return \code{logical} of length the number of input unique sequences.
#'  TRUE if sequence is a bimera of more abundant "parent" sequences. Otherwise FALSE.
#'
#' @param multithread (Optional). Default is FALSE.
#'  If TRUE, multithreading is enabled and the number of available threads is automatically determined.   
#'  If an integer is provided, the number of threads to use is set by passing the argument on to
#'  \code{\link{mclapply}}.
#'   
#' @param verbose (Optional). \code{logical(1)} indicating verbose text output. Default FALSE.
#'
#' @seealso 
#'  \code{\link{isBimera}}, \code{\link{removeBimeraDenovo}}
#' 
#' @export
#' 
#' @importFrom parallel mclapply
#' @importFrom parallel detectCores
#' 
#' @examples
#' derep1 = derepFastq(system.file("extdata", "sam1F.fastq.gz", package="dada2"))
#' dada1 <- dada(derep1, err=tperr1, errorEstimationFunction=loessErrfun, selfConsist=TRUE)
#' isBimeraDenovo(dada1)
#' isBimeraDenovo(dada1$denoised, minFoldParentOverAbundance = 2, allowOneOff=FALSE)
#' 
isBimeraDenovo <- function(unqs, minFoldParentOverAbundance = 1, minParentAbundance = 8, allowOneOff=TRUE, minOneOffParentDistance=4, maxShift=16, multithread=FALSE, verbose=FALSE) {
  if(any(duplicated(getSequences(unqs)))) message("Duplicate sequences detected.")
  unqs.int <- getUniques(unqs, silence=TRUE) # Internal, keep input unqs for proper return value when duplications
  abunds <- unname(unqs.int)
  seqs <- names(unqs.int)
  seqs.input <- getSequences(unqs)
  rm(unqs); gc(verbose=FALSE)
  
  # Parse multithreading argument
  if(is.logical(multithread)) {
    if(multithread==TRUE) { mc.cores <- getOption("mc.cores", detectCores()) }
  } else if(is.numeric(multithread)) {
    mc.cores <- multithread
    multithread <- TRUE
  } else {
    warning("Invalid multithread parameter. Running as a single thread.")
    multithread <- FALSE
  }

  loopFun <- function(i, unqs.loop, minFoldParentOverAbundance, minParentAbundance, allowOneOff, minOneOffParentDistance, maxShift) {
    sq <- names(unqs.loop)[[i]]
    abund <- unqs.loop[[i]]
    pars <- names(unqs.loop)[(unqs.loop>(minFoldParentOverAbundance*abund) & unqs.loop>minParentAbundance)]
    if(length(pars) < 2) {
      return(FALSE)
    } else {
      isBimera(sq, pars, allowOneOff=allowOneOff, minOneOffParentDistance=minOneOffParentDistance, maxShift=maxShift)
    }
  }
  
  if(multithread) {
    mc.indices <- sample(seq_along(unqs.int), length(unqs.int)) # load balance
    bims <- mclapply(mc.indices, loopFun, unqs.loop=unqs.int, 
                     allowOneOff=allowOneOff, minFoldParentOverAbundance=minFoldParentOverAbundance,
                     minParentAbundance=minParentAbundance,
                     minOneOffParentDistance=minOneOffParentDistance, maxShift=maxShift,
                     mc.cores=mc.cores)
    bims <- bims[order(mc.indices)]
  } else {
    bims <- lapply(seq_along(unqs.int), loopFun, unqs.loop=unqs.int, 
                   allowOneOff=allowOneOff, minFoldParentOverAbundance=minFoldParentOverAbundance,
                   minParentAbundance=minParentAbundance,
                   minOneOffParentDistance=minOneOffParentDistance, maxShift=maxShift)
  }
  bims <- unlist(bims)
  bims.out <- seqs.input %in% seqs[bims]
  names(bims.out) <- seqs.input
  if(verbose) message("Identified ", sum(bims.out), " bimeras out of ", length(bims.out), " input sequences.")
  return(bims.out)
}

################################################################################
#' Identify bimeras in a sequence table.
#' 
#' This function implements a table-specific version of de novo bimera detection. In short,
#' bimeric sequences are flagged on a sample-by-sample basis. Then, a vote is performed for
#' each sequence across all samples in which it appeared. If the sequence is flagged in a
#' sufficiently high fraction of samples, it is identified as a bimera. A logical vector is
#' returned, with an entry for each sequence in the table indicating whether it was identified
#' as bimeric by this consensus procedure.
#' 
#' @param seqtab (Required). A sequence table. That is, an integer matrix with colnames
#'   corresponding to A/C/G/T sequences.
#'  
#' @param minSampleFraction (Optional). Default is 0.9.
#'   The fraction of samples in which a sequence must be flagged as bimeric in order for it to
#'   be classified as a bimera.
#'   
#' @param ignoreNNegatives (Optional). Default is 1.
#'   The number of unflagged samples to ignore when evaluating whether the fraction of samples
#'   in which a sequence was flagged as a bimera exceeds \code{minSampleFraction}. The purpose
#'   of this parameter is to lower the threshold at which sequences found in few samples are
#'   flagged as bimeras.
#'   
#' @param minFoldParentOverAbundance (Optional). Default is 1.
#'   Only sequences greater than this-fold more abundant than a sequence can be its 
#'   "parents". Evaluated on a per-sample basis.
#'   
#' @param minParentAbundance (Optional). Default is 2.
#'   Only sequences at least this abundant can be "parents". Evaluated on a per-sample basis.
#' 
#' @param allowOneOff (Optional). Default is TRUE.
#'   If TRUE, sequences that have one mismatch or indel to an exact bimera are also
#'   flagged as bimeric.
#' 
#' @param minOneOffParentDistance (Optional). Default is 4.
#'   Only sequences with at least this many mismatches to the potential bimeric sequence
#'   considered as possible "parents" when flagging one-off bimeras. There is
#'   no such screen when considering exact bimeras.
#'   
#' @param maxShift (Optional). Default is 16.
#'   Maximum shift allowed when aligning sequences to potential "parents".
#' 
#' @param multithread (Optional). Default is FALSE.
#'  If TRUE, multithreading is enabled. NOT YET IMPLEMENTED.
#'   
#' @param verbose (Optional). Default FALSE.
#'   Print verbose text output. 
#'
#' @return \code{logical} of length equal to the number of sequences in the input table.
#'  TRUE if sequence is identified as a bimera. Otherwise FALSE.
#'
#' @seealso 
#'  \code{\link{isBimera}}, \code{\link{removeBimeraDenovo}}
#' 
#' @export
#' 
#' @examples
#' derep1 = derepFastq(system.file("extdata", "sam1F.fastq.gz", package="dada2"))
#' derep2 = derepFastq(system.file("extdata", "sam2F.fastq.gz", package="dada2"))
#' dd <- dada(list(derep1,derep2), err=NULL, errorEstimationFunction=loessErrfun, selfConsist=TRUE)
#' seqtab <- makeSequenceTable(dd)
#' isBimeraDenovoTable(seqtab)
#' isBimeraDenovoTable(seqtab, allowOneOff=FALSE, minSampleFraction=0.5)
#' 
isBimeraDenovoTable <- function(seqtab, minSampleFraction=0.9, ignoreNNegatives=1, minFoldParentOverAbundance = 1, minParentAbundance = 2, allowOneOff=TRUE, minOneOffParentDistance=4, maxShift=16, multithread=FALSE, verbose=FALSE) {
  sqs <- colnames(seqtab)
  if(!(is.matrix(seqtab) && is.integer(seqtab) &&  !is.null(sqs) && all(sapply(sqs, C_isACGT)))) {
    stop("Input must be a valid sequence table.")
  }
  if(any(duplicated(sqs))) stop("Duplicate sequences detected in input.")
  # Parse multithreading argument
  if(is.logical(multithread)) {
    if(multithread==TRUE) { RcppParallel::setThreadOptions(numThreads = "auto") }
    else { RcppParallel::setThreadOptions(numThreads = 1) }
  } else if(is.numeric(multithread)) {
    RcppParallel::setThreadOptions(numThreads = multithread)
  } else {
    warning("Invalid multithread parameter. Running as a single thread.")
    RcppParallel::setThreadOptions(numThreads = 1)
  }
  bimdf <- C_table_bimera2(seqtab, sqs,
                           minFoldParentOverAbundance, minParentAbundance, allowOneOff, minOneOffParentDistance,
                           getDadaOpt("MATCH"), getDadaOpt("MISMATCH"), getDadaOpt("GAP_PENALTY"), maxShift)

  is.bim <- function(nflag, nsam, minFrac, ignoreN) { 
    nflag >= nsam || (nflag > 0 && nflag >= (nsam-ignoreN)*minFrac) 
  }
  bims.out <- mapply(is.bim, bimdf$nflag, bimdf$nsam, minFrac=minSampleFraction, ignoreN=ignoreNNegatives)
  names(bims.out) <- sqs
    
  if(verbose) message("Identified ", sum(bims.out), " bimeras out of ", length(bims.out), " input sequences.")
  return(bims.out)
}

################################################################################
#' Remove bimeras from collections of unique sequences.
#' 
#' This function is a convenience interface for chimera removal. Two methods to identify chimeras are
#'  supported: Identification from pooled sequences (see \code{\link{isBimeraDenovo}} for details)
#'  and identification by consensus across samples (see \code{\link{isBimeraDenovoTable}} for details).
#'  Sequence variants identified as bimeric are removed, and a bimera-free collection of unique sequences
#'  is returned.
#' 
#' @param unqs (Required). A \code{\link{uniques-vector}} or any object that can be coerced
#'  into one with \code{\link{getUniques}}. A list of such objects can also be provided.
#'   
#' @param method (Optional). Default is "consensus". Only has an effect if a sequence table is provided.   
#' 
#'   If "pooled": The samples in the sequence table are all pooled together for bimera
#'      identification (\code{\link{isBimeraDenovo}}).   
#'      
#'   If "consensus": The samples in a sequence table are independently checked for bimeras,
#'      and a consensus decision on each sequence variant is made (\code{\link{isBimeraDenovoTable}}).
#' 
#'   If "per-sample": The samples in a sequence table are independently checked for bimeras,
#'      and sequence variants are removed (zeroed-out) from samples independently (\code{\link{isBimeraDenovo}}).
#'
#' @param tableMethod (DEPRECATED).
#'
#' @param ... (Optional). Arguments to be passed to \code{\link{isBimeraDenovo}} or \code{\link{isBimeraDenovoTable}}.
#'   
#' @param verbose (Optional). Default FALSE. 
#'  Print verbose text output.
#'
#' @return A uniques vector, or an object of matching class if a data.frame or sequence table is provided.
#'  A list of such objects is returned if a list of input unqs was provided.
#'
#' @seealso \code{\link{isBimeraDenovoTable}}, \code{\link{isBimeraDenovo}}
#' 
#' @export
#' 
#' @examples
#' derep1 = derepFastq(system.file("extdata", "sam1F.fastq.gz", package="dada2"))
#' dada1 <- dada(derep1, err=tperr1, errorEstimationFunction=loessErrfun, selfConsist=TRUE)
#' out.nobim <- removeBimeraDenovo(dada1)
#' out.nobim <- removeBimeraDenovo(dada1$clustering, method="pooled", minFoldParentOverAbundance = 2, allowOneOff=FALSE)
#' 
removeBimeraDenovo <- function(unqs, method = "consensus", tableMethod=NULL, ..., verbose=FALSE) {
  if(class(unqs)!="list") {
    unqs <- list(unqs)
  }
  if(!is.null(tableMethod)) {
    warning("DEPRECATED: The tableMethod argument has been replaced by the method argument. Please update your code.")
    method <- tableMethod
  }
  outs <- list()
  for(i in seq_along(unqs)) {
    # The following code is adapted from getUniques
    if(is.integer(unqs[[i]]) && length(names(unqs[[i]])) != 0 && !any(is.na(names(unqs[[i]])))) { # Named integer vector already
      bim <- isBimeraDenovo(unqs[[i]], ..., verbose=verbose)
      outs[[i]] <- unqs[[i]][!bim]
    } else if(class(unqs[[i]]) == "dada") {  # dada return 
      bim <- isBimeraDenovo(unqs[[i]], ..., verbose=verbose)
      outs[[i]] <- unqs[[i]]$denoised[!bim]
    } else if(class(unqs[[i]]) == "derep") {
      bim <- isBimeraDenovo(unqs[[i]], ..., verbose=verbose)
      outs[[i]] <- unqs[[i]]$uniques[!bim]
    } else if(is.data.frame(unqs[[i]]) && all(c("sequence", "abundance") %in% colnames(unqs[[i]]))) {
      bim <- isBimeraDenovo(unqs[[i]], ..., verbose=verbose)
      outs[[i]] <- unqs[[i]][!bim,]
    } else if(class(unqs[[i]]) == "matrix" && !any(is.na(colnames(unqs[[i]])))) { # Tabled sequences
      if(missing(method) && i==1) {
        message("As of the 1.4 release, the default method changed to consensus (from pooled).")
      }
      if(method == "pooled") {
        bim <- isBimeraDenovo(unqs[[i]], ..., verbose=verbose)
      } else if(method == "consensus") {
        bim <- isBimeraDenovoTable(unqs[[i]], ..., verbose=verbose)
      } else if(method == "per-sample") {
    		bim <- t(apply(unqs[[i]], 1, function(x) isBimeraDenovo(x, ..., verbose=verbose)))
      } else {
        stop("Valid values for method: 'pooled', 'consensus', or 'per-sample'")
      }
      if (method %in% c("pooled", "consensus")) {
      	outs[[i]] <- unqs[[i]][,!bim,drop=FALSE]
      } else if (method %in% c("per-sample")) {
      	outs[[i]] <- unqs[[i]]
      	outs[[i]][which(bim, arr.ind=T)] <- 0
      	cbim <- colSums(outs[[i]])==0
      	outs[[i]] <- outs[[i]][,!cbim,drop=FALSE]
      }
      else {
      	stop("Valid values for method: 'pooled', 'consensus', or 'per-sample'")
      }
    } else {
      stop("Unrecognized format: Requires named integer vector, dada-class, derep-class, sequence matrix, or a data.frame with $sequence and $abundance columns.")
    }
  }
  names(outs) <- names(unqs)
  if(length(outs) == 1) {
    return(outs[[1]])
  }
  return(outs)
}

################################################################################
#' Identify sequences that are identical to a more abundant sequence up to an
#' overall shift.
#' 
#' This function is a wrapper around isShift for collections of unique
#' sequences. Each unique sequence is evaluated against a set of "parents" drawn from
#' the sequence collection that are more abundant than the sequence being evaluated.
#' 
#' @param unqs (Required). A \code{\link{uniques-vector}} or any object that can be coerced
#'  into one with \code{\link{getUniques}}.
#'   
#' @param minOverlap (Optional). A \code{numeric(1)}. Default is 20.
#'   Minimum overlap required to call something a shift.
#'   
#' @param flagSubseqs (Optional). A \code{logical(1)}. Default is FALSE.
#'   Whether or not to flag strict subsequences as shifts.
#'   
#' @return \code{logical} of length the number of input unique sequences.
#'  TRUE if sequence is an exact shift of a more abundant sequence. Otherwise FALSE.
#'
#' @param verbose (Optional). \code{logical(1)} indicating verbose text output. Default FALSE.
#'
#' @seealso \code{\link{isBimera}}
#' 
#' @export
#' 
#' @examples
#' derep1 = derepFastq(system.file("extdata", "sam1F.fastq.gz", package="dada2"))
#' dada1 <- dada(derep1, err=tperr1, errorEstimationFunction=loessErrfun, selfConsist=TRUE)
#' isShiftDenovo(dada1)
#' isShiftDenovo(dada1$denoised, minOverlap=50, verbose=TRUE)
#' 
isShiftDenovo <- function(unqs, minOverlap = 20, flagSubseqs=FALSE, verbose=FALSE) {
  unqs.int <- getUniques(unqs, silence=TRUE) # Internal, keep input unqs for proper return value when duplications
  abunds <- unname(unqs.int)
  seqs <- names(unqs.int)
  
  loopFun <- function(sq, abund) {
    pars <- seqs[abunds>abund]
    if(length(pars) == 0) {
      if(verbose) print("No possible parents.")
      return(FALSE)
    } else {
      isShift(sq, pars, minOverlap=minOverlap)
    }
  }
  shifts <- mapply(loopFun, seqs, abunds)
  
  shifts.out <- getSequences(unqs) %in% seqs[shifts]
  names(shifts.out) <- getSequences(unqs)
  return(shifts.out)
}


# Internal function that determines if two sequences are identical up to a shift
# Uses NW alignment with ends-free gapping
# 
# @param sq1 A \code{character(1)}. The first DNA sequence.
# 
# @param sq2 A \code{character(1)}. The second DNA sequence.
# 
# @param minOverlap (Optional). A \code{numeric(1)}. Default is 20.
#   Minimum overlap required to call something a shift.
#   
isShiftedPair <- function(sq1, sq2, minOverlap=20, flagSubseqs=FALSE) {
  al <- nwalign(sq1, sq2, band=-1)
  foo <- C_eval_pair(al[1], al[2])
  return((foo["match"] < nchar(sq1) || flagSubseqs) && (foo["match"] < nchar(sq2) || flagSubseqs) &&
           foo["match"] >= minOverlap && foo["mismatch"]==0 && foo["indel"]==0)
}

isShift <- function(sq, pars, minOverlap=20, flagSubseqs=FALSE) {
  return(any(sapply(pars, function(par) isShiftedPair(sq, par, minOverlap=minOverlap, flagSubseqs=flagSubseqs))))
}
Bioconductor-mirror/dada2 documentation built on June 1, 2017, 7:31 a.m.