R/nowcast.R

Defines functions .weightFactor .nowcast

Documented in .nowcast

#' @title Calculate NowCast values
#'
#' @description
#' This function calculates the NowCast version of the incoming data.
#'
#' @param x vector of ordered PM2.5 data in units of ug/m3
#' @param version character identity specifying the type of nowcast algorithm to
#' be used. For details see \link{monitor_nowcast}.
#' @param includeShortTerm calculate preliminary NowCast values starting with the 2nd hour
#'
#' @return Vector of unitless NowCast values of the same length as \code{x}.
#'
#' @export

.nowcast <- function(x,
                     version = "pm",
                     includeShortTerm = FALSE) {

  # Set parameters based on version
  if (version =='pm') {
    numHrs <- 12
    weightFactorMin <- 0.5
    digits <- 1
  } else if (version =='pmAsian') {
    numHrs <- 3
    weightFactorMin <- 0.1
    digits <- 1
  } else if (version == 'ozone') {
    numHrs <- 8
    weightFactorMin <- NA  # negative values adjusted up to 0 in .weightFactor()
    digits <- 3  # NOTE: digits=3 assumes Ozone values given in ppm; update to 0 if values given in ppb
  } else if (version == 'identity') {
    NULL
  }

  if ( includeShortTerm ) {
    firstHr <- 2
  } else {
    firstHr <- numHrs
  }

  # Start at the end end of the data (most recent hour) and work backwards
  # The oldest hour for which we can calculate nowcast is numHrs, unless
  # includeShortTerm=TRUE in which case we can go back to the 2nd hour.
  for ( i in length(x):firstHr ) {

    # Apply nowcast algorithm to numHrs data points in order with more recent first
    concByHour <- x[i:max(1, i-numHrs+1)]

    if ( sum( is.na(concByHour[1:3]) ) >= 2 ) {

      # If two or more of the most recent 3 hours are missing, no valid Nowcast will be reported

      x[i] <- NA

    } else if ( is.na(concByHour[1]) ) {

      # If the current hour is missing, no valid Nowcast will be reported

      # NOTE:  This conflicts with the algorithm as described here:
      # NOTE:    https://www3.epa.gov/airnow/ani/pm25_aqi_reporting_nowcast_overview.pdf
      # NOTE:
      # NOTE:  But experience shows that NowCast replacements for missing values for missing
      # NOTE:  PM2.5 values are very problematic.
      # NOTE:
      # NOTE:  The Wikipedia page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NowCast_(air_quality_index)
      # NOTE:  has the following statement without citation:
      # NOTE:    "Because the most recent hours of data are weighted so heavily in the NowCast when
      # NOTE:    PM levels are changing, EPA does not report the NowCast when data is missing for c1 or c2."
      # NOTE:
      # NOTE:  We take a compromise approach and only invalidate NowCast when data is missing for c1.

      x[i] <- NA

    } else {

      # Calculate the weight factor according to the type of air quality data
      weightFactor <- .weightFactor(concByHour, weightFactorMin)

      # NOTE:  We need to create vectors so that we can sum at the end with na.rm=TRUE

      weightedConcs <- rep(as.numeric(NA),numHrs)
      weightFactors <- rep(as.numeric(NA),numHrs)

      # Loop over hours to get individual elements
      for (j in 1:numHrs) {
        if ( !is.na( concByHour[j]) ) {
          weightedConcs[j] <- concByHour[j] * weightFactor^(j-1)
          weightFactors[j] <- weightFactor^(j-1)
        }
      }

      x[i] <- sum(weightedConcs, na.rm=TRUE) / sum(weightFactors, na.rm=TRUE)

    }
  }

  # Set missing values when there are not enough preceding hours
  x[1:(firstHr-1)] <- NA

  return(x)

}

# Calculate the weight factor ('w' in the nowcast formula)
#  concByHour: vector of hourly concentration values
#  weightFactorMin (optional): wight factor minimum
# Assumes concByHour has at least one valid value to calculate min & max. In fact, .nowcast won't even call
# this function if more than one of the three most recent hours is invalid.
.weightFactor <- function(concByHour, weightFactorMin) {

  min <- min(concByHour, na.rm=TRUE)
  max <- max(concByHour, na.rm=TRUE)

  # Calculate weight factor
  # NOTE:  https://forum.airnowtech.org/t/the-nowcast-for-ozone-and-pm/172 says that there is "no minimum
  # NOTE:    weight factor" for ozone; however, we limit the value to zero since otherwise it would be possible
  # NOTE:    to get negative weights, even as large as -Inf (i.e. if min<0 & max=0).
  # NOTE:  Otherwise, we don't worry about negatives, per the following:
  # NOTE:    https://forum.airnowtech.org/t/how-does-airnow-handle-negative-hourly-concentrations/143
  weightFactor <- 1-(max-min)/max
  weightFactor <- min(weightFactor, 1, na.rm=TRUE)
  weightFactor <- max(weightFactor, weightFactorMin, 0, na.rm=TRUE)

  return(weightFactor)

}
MazamaScience/PWFSLSmokePlots documentation built on Oct. 11, 2019, 11:03 p.m.