Classifies species into seven forms of rarity of Rabinowitz


The Rabinowitz’s method uses three parameters (geographic range, habitat specificity, and population size) to classify rare species. Geographic range is a parameter of regional scale, while the other two are local. Their combination results in seven form of rarity, and in the identification of common species.


Eduardo Arlé PhD student, Macroecology and Society, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig.

Everton Alves Maciel PhD student, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Brazil. and PhD-SWE student, Helmholtz Centre Environmental Research - UFZ, Germany. contact:

Install Rare7 from github




Import packages




The main function is rareData, basically, this quantifies higher latitudes to quantify the proportion of distribution of a species; maximum abundance of a species and habitat number where species occur.


The second function uses the output provided by the first function. Then this function classifies the forms of rarity.

Data format/information

The data input to Rare is a data frame that contains the following structure.

'data.frame': 5 obs. of 5 variables:

$ specie : Factor w/ 5 levels "sp.1","sp.2",..: 1 2 3 4 5

$ lat : num -4.7 -14.7 -14.7 -24.7 -24.7

$ long : num -42.9 -39.9 -45.9 -45.1 -45.9

$ NumIndiv: int 2 1 3 1 32

$ habitat : Factor w/ 2 levels "forest","savanna": 2 1 2 1 2

How to cite

If you publish something based on results from Rare7 (R package), please make reference to Maciel, E. A., & Arlé, E. (2020). Rare7: An R package to assess the forms of rarity in a community. Ecological Indicators, 115, 106419.

The main reference

Rabinowitz, D. (1981). Seven forms of rarity. In ‘The biological aspects of rare plant conservation’.(Ed. H Synge) pp. 205–217.

Learning more

Rabinowitz, D., Rapp, J. K., & Dixon, P. M. (1984). Competitive abilities of sparse grass species: means of persistence or cause of abundance. Ecology, 65(4), 1144-1154.

Rabinowitz, D. (1986). Seven forms of rarity and their frequency in the flora of the British Isles. Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity.

Sætersdal, M., & Birks, H. J. B. (1997). A comparative ecological study of Norwegian mountain plants in relation to possible future climatic change. Journal of Biogeography, 24(2), 127-152.

Pitman, N. C., Terborgh, J., Silman, M. R., & Nuñez V, P. (1999). Tree species distributions in an upper Amazonian forest. Ecology, 80(8), 2651-2661.

Caiafa, A. N., & Martins, F. R. (2010). Forms of rarity of tree species in the southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Biodiversity and conservation, 19(9), 2597-2618.

evertonmaciel/Rare7 documentation built on June 15, 2020, 10:32 p.m.