locateVariants-methods: Locate variants

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) See Also Examples

Description

Variant location with respect to gene function

Usage

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locateVariants(query, subject, region, ...)
## S4 method for signature 'VCF,TxDb,VariantType'
locateVariants(query, subject, region, ..., 
    cache=new.env(parent=emptyenv()), ignore.strand=FALSE, asHits=FALSE)
## S4 method for signature 'GRanges,TxDb,VariantType'
locateVariants(query, subject, region, ..., 
    cache=new.env(parent=emptyenv()), ignore.strand=FALSE, asHits=FALSE)

Arguments

query

A Ranges, GRanges or VCF object containing the variants. Metadata columns are allowed but ignored.

NOTE: Zero-width ranges are treated as width-1 ranges; start values are decremented to equal the end value.

subject

A TxDb or GRangesList object that serves as the annotation. GFF files can be converted to TxDb objects with makeTxDbFromGFF() in the GenomicFeatures package.

region

An instance of one of the 8 VariantType classes : CodingVariants, IntronVariants, FiveUTRVariants, ThreeUTRVariants, IntergenicVariants, SpliceSiteVariants, PromoterVariants, AllVariants. All objects can be instantiated with no arguments, e.g., CodingVariants() will create an object of CodingVariants.

AllVariants, PromoterVariants and IntergenicVariants have upstream and downstream arguments. For PromoterVariants and IntergenicVariants these are single integer values >= 0. For AllVariants these are integer vectors of length 2 named ‘promoter’ and ‘intergenic’. See ?upstream for more details.

When using AllVariants, a range in query may fall in multiple regions (e.g., 'intergenic' and 'promoter'). In this case the result will have a row for each match. All data in the row will be equivalent except the LOCATION column.

...

Additional arguments passed to methods

cache

An environment into which required components of subject are loaded. Provide, and re-use, a cache to speed repeated queries to the same subject across different query instances.

ignore.strand

A logical indicating if strand should be ignored when performing overlaps.

asHits

A logical indicating if the results should be returned as a Hits object. Not applicable when region is AllVariants or IntergenicVariants.

Details

Range representation :

The ranges in query should reflect the position(s) of the reference allele. For snps the range will be of width 1. For range insertions or deletions the reference allele could be a sequence such as GGTG in which case the width of the range should be 4.

Location :

Possible locations are ‘coding’, ‘intron’, ‘threeUTR’, ‘fiveUTR’, ‘intergenic’, ‘spliceSite’, or ‘promoter’.

Overlap operations for ‘coding’, ‘intron’, ‘threeUTR’, and ‘fiveUTR’ require variants to fall completely within the defined region to be classified as such.

To be classified as a ‘spliceSite’ the variant must overlap with any portion of the first 2 or last 2 nucleotides in an intron.

‘intergenic’ variants are ranges that do not fall within a defined gene region. ‘transcripts by gene’ are extracted from the annotation and overlapped with the variant positions. Variants with no overlaps are classified as intergenic. When available, gene IDs for the flanking genes are provided as PRECEDEID and FOLLOWID. upstream and downstream arguments define the acceptable distance from the query for the flanking genes. PRECEDEID and FOLLOWID results are lists and contain all genes that fall within the defined distance. See the examples for how to compute the distance from ranges to PRECEDEID and FOLLOWID.

‘promoter’ variants fall within a specified range upstream and downstream of the transcription start site. Ranges values can be set with the upstream and downstream arguments when creating the PromoterVariants() or AllVariants() classes.

Subject as GRangesList :

The subject can be a TxDb or GRangesList object. When using a GRangesList the type of data required is driven by the VariantType class. Below is a description of the appropriate GRangesList for each VariantType.

CodingVariants :

coding (CDS) by transcript

IntronVariants :

introns by transcript

FiveUTRVariants :

five prime UTR by transcript

ThreeUTRVariants :

three prime UTR by transcript

IntergenicVariants :

transcripts by gene

SpliceSiteVariants :

introns by transcript

PromoterVariants :

list of transcripts

AllVariants :

no GRangeList method available

Using the cache :

When processing multiple VCF files performance is enhanced by specifying an enviornment as the cache argument. This cache is used to store and reuse extracted components of the subject (TxDb) required by the function. The first call to the function (i.e., processing the first VCF file in a list of many) populates the cache; repeated calls to locateVariants will access these objects from the cache vs re-extracting the same information.

Value

A GRanges object with a row for each variant-transcript match. Strand of the output is from the subject hit except in the case of IntergenicVariants. For intergenic, multiple precede and follow gene ids are returned for each variant. When ignore.strand=TRUE the return strand is * because genes on both strands are considered and it is possible to have a mixture. When ignore.strand=FALSE the strand will match the query because only genes on the same strand are considered.

Metadata columns are LOCATION, QUERYID, TXID, GENEID, PRECEDEID, FOLLOWID and CDSID. Results are ordered by QUERYID, TXID and GENEID. Columns are described in detail below.

LOCATION

Possible locations are ‘coding’, ‘intron’, ‘threeUTR’, ‘fiveUTR’, ‘intergenic’, ‘spliceSite’ and ‘promoter’.

To be classified as ‘coding’, ‘intron’, ‘threeUTR’ or ‘fiveUTR’ the variant must fall completely within the region.

‘intergenic’ variants do not fall within a transcript. The ‘GENEID’ for these positions are NA. Lists of flanking genes that fall within the distance defined by upstream and downstream are given as ‘PRECEDEID’ and ‘FOLLOWID’. By default, the gene ID is returned in the ‘PRECEDEID’ and ‘FOLLOWID’ columns. To return the transcript ids instead set idType = "tx" in the IntergenicVariants() constructor.

A ‘spliceSite’ variant overlaps any portion of the first 2 or last 2 nucleotides of an intron.

LOCSTART, LOCEND

Genomic position in LOCATION-centric coordinates. If LOCATION is 'intron', these are intron-centric coordinates, if LOCATION is 'coding' then cds-centric. All coordinates are relative to the start of the transcript. SpliceSiteVariants, IntergenicVariants and PromoterVariants have no formal extraction 'by transcript' so for these variants LOCSTART and LOCEND are NA. Coordinates are computed with mapToTranscripts; see ?mapToTranscripts in the GenomicFeatures package for details.

QUERYID

The QUERYID column provides a map back to the row in the original query. If the query was a VCF object this index corresponds to the row in the GRanges object returned by the rowRanges accessor.

TXID

The transcript id taken from the TxDb object.

CDSID

The coding sequence id(s) taken from the TxDb object.

GENEID

The gene id taken from the TxDb object.

PRECEDEID

IDs for all genes the query precedes within the defined upstream and downstream distance. Only applicable for ‘intergenic’ variants. By default this column contains gene ids; to return transcript ids set idType = "tx" in the IntergenicVariants constructor.

FOLLOWID

IDs for all genes the query follows within the defined upstream and downstream distance. Only applicable for ‘intergenic’ variants. By default this column contains gene ids; to return transcript ids set idType = "tx" in the IntergenicVariants constructor.

All ID values will be ‘NA’ for variants with a location of transcript_region or NA.

Author(s)

Valerie Obenchain

See Also

Examples

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  library(TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene)
  txdb <- TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene 

  ## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ## Variants in all gene regions 
  ## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ## Read variants from a VCF file.
  fl <- system.file("extdata", "gl_chr1.vcf", 
                    package="VariantAnnotation")
  vcf <- readVcf(fl, "hg19")

  ## Often the seqlevels in the VCF file do not match those in the TxDb.
  head(seqlevels(vcf))
  head(seqlevels(txdb))
  intersect(seqlevels(vcf), seqlevels(txdb))

  ## Rename seqlevels with renameSeqlevesl().
  vcf <- renameSeqlevels(vcf, paste0("chr", seqlevels(vcf))) 

  ## Confirm.
  intersect(seqlevels(vcf), seqlevels(txdb))

  ## Overlaps for all possible variant locations.
  loc_all <- locateVariants(vcf, txdb, AllVariants())
  table(loc_all$LOCATION)

  ## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ## Variants in intergenic regions 
  ## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ## Intergenic variants do not overlap a gene range in the 
  ## annotation and therefore 'GENEID' is always NA. Flanking genes 
  ## that fall within the 'upstream' and 'downstream' distances are 
  ## reported as PRECEDEID and FOLLOWID.
  region <- IntergenicVariants(upstream=70000, downstream=70000)
  loc_int <- locateVariants(vcf, txdb, region)
  mcols(loc_int)[c("LOCATION", "PRECEDEID", "FOLLOWID")] 

  ## Distance to the flanking genes can be computed for variants that 
  ## have PRECEDEID(s) or FOLLOWID(s). Each variant can have multiple 
  ## flanking id's so we first expand PRECEDEID and the corresponding
  ## variant ranges.
  p_ids <- unlist(loc_int$PRECEDEID, use.names=FALSE) 
  exp_ranges <- rep(loc_int,  elementNROWS(loc_int$PRECEDEID))

  ## Compute distances with the distance method defined in GenomicFeatures.
  ## Help page can be found at ?`distance,GenomicRanges,TxDb-method`.
  ## The method returns NA for ids that cannot be collapsed into a single 
  ## range (e.g., genes with ranges on multiple chromosomes).
  distance(exp_ranges, txdb, id=p_ids, type="gene")

  ## To search for distance by transcript id set idType='tx' in the 
  ## IntergenicVariants() constructor, e.g.,
  ## locateVariants(vcf, txdb, region=IntergenicVariants(idType="tx"))

  ## Unlist ids and expand ranges as before to get p_ids and exp_ranges.
  ## Then call distance() with type = "tx":
  ## distance(exp_ranges, txdb, id=p_ids, type="tx")


  ## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ## GRangesList as subject 
  ## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ## When 'subject' is a GRangesList the GENEID is unavailable and
  ## will always be reported as NA. This is because the GRangesList 
  ## objects are extractions of region-by-transcript, not region-by-gene.
  ## Not run: 
  cdsbytx <- cdsBy(txdb)
  locateVariants(vcf, cdsbytx, CodingVariants())

  intbytx <- intronsByTranscript(txdb)
  locateVariants(vcf, intbytx, IntronVariants())
  
## End(Not run)

  ## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ## Using the cache 
  ## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ## When processing multiple VCF files, the 'cache' can be used
  ## to store the extracted components of the TxDb
  ## (i.e., cds by tx, introns by tx etc.). This avoids having to 
  ## re-extract these GRangesLists during each loop.
  ## Not run: 
  myenv <- new.env()
  files <- list(vcf1, vcf2, vcf3)
  lapply(files, 
      function(fl) {
          vcf <- readVcf(fl, "hg19")
          ## modify seqlevels to match TxDb
          seqlevels(vcf_mod) <- paste0("chr", seqlevels(vcf)) 
          locateVariants(vcf_mod, txdb, AllVariants(), cache=myenv)
      }) 
  
## End(Not run)

  ## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ## Parallel implmentation 
  ## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ## Not run: 
  library(BiocParallel)

  ## A connection to a TxDb object is established when
  ## the package is loaded. Because each process reading from an 
  ## sqlite db must have a unique connection the TxDb
  ## object cannot be passed as an argument when running in 
  ## parallel. Instead the package must be loaded on each worker.

  ## The overhead of the multiple loading may defeat the
  ## purpose of running the job in parallel. An alternative is
  ## to instead pass the appropriate GRangesList as an argument.
  ## The details section on this man page under the heading
  ## 'Subject as GRangesList' explains what GRangesList is
  ## appropriate for each variant type.

  ## A. Passing a GRangesList:

  fun <- function(x, subject, ...)
      locateVariants(x, subject, IntronVariants())

  library(TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene)
  grl <- intronsByTranscript(TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene)
  mclapply(c(vcf, vcf), fun, subject=grl)


  ## B. Passing a TxDb:
 
  ## Forking:
  ## In the case of forking, the TxDb cannot be loaded
  ## in the current workspace.
  ## To detach the NAMESPACE:
  ##     unloadNamespace("TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene")

  fun <- function(x) {
      library(TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene)
      locateVariants(x, TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene, 
                     IntronVariants())
  }
  mclapply(c(vcf, vcf), fun)

  ## Clusters:
  cl <- makeCluster(2, type = "SOCK")
  fun <- function(query, subject, region) {
      library(VariantAnnotation)
      library(TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene)
      locateVariants(query, TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene, region)
  }
  parLapply(cl, c(vcf, vcf), fun, region=IntronVariants())
  stopCluster(cl)
  
## End(Not run)

vobencha/VariantAnnotation documentation built on May 10, 2017, 6:09 a.m.