Adler: Experimenter Expectations

Description Usage Format Source References


The Adler data frame has 97 rows and 3 columns.

The “experimenters” were the actual subjects of the study. They collected ratings of the apparent successfulness of people in pictures who were pre-selected for their average appearance. The experimenters were told prior to collecting data that the pictures were either high or low in their appearance of success, and were instructed to get good data, scientific data, or were given no such instruction. Each experimenter collected ratings from 18 randomly assigned respondents; a few subjects were deleted at random to produce an unbalanced design.




This data frame contains the following columns:


a factor with levels: GOOD, good data; NONE, no stress; SCIENTIFIC, scientific data.


a factor with levels: HIGH, expect high ratings; LOW, expect low ratings.


The average rating obtained.


Adler, N. E. (1973) Impact of prior sets given experimenters and subjects on the experimenter expectancy effect. Sociometry 36, 113–126.


Erickson, B. H., and Nosanchuk, T. A. (1977) Understanding Data. McGraw-Hill Ryerson.

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