fileidentifier <- "netprioR_cache" library(knitr) library(dplyr) library(pander) library(ggplot2) library(BiocStyle) library(netprioR) library(pROC) library(Matrix) # library(gdata) # library(tidyr) knitr::opts_chunk$set( cache.path = paste("./cache/", fileidentifier, "/", sep = ""), fig.width = 7, fig.height = 7, fig.align = "center", fig.path = paste("./figs/", fileidentifier, "/", sep = ""), cache = FALSE, #Default cache off echo = FALSE, warning = FALSE, message = FALSE, comment = NA, tidy = TRUE) rm(list = ls())

*netprioR* requires the following data as input

- A priori known labels for true positive (TP) and true negative (TN) genes $Y$
- Network data describing gene--gene similarities $G$
- Gene phenotypes (and other covariates) $X$

In the following steps we simulate data for a set of N = `r N <- 1000; N`

genes
and a two class prioritisation task (positive vs. negative) and benchmark the performance
of our model against the case where we prioritise soleley based on phenotypes.

We simulate the case where we know `r nlabel <- 100; nlabel`

labels a priori, which corresponds
to `r nlabel/N * 100`

% labelled data. We simulate equal numberos of `r nlabel/2 %>% floor`

positives and
`r nlabel/2 %>% floor`

negatives, setting

members_per_class <- c(N/2, N/2) %>% floor

Then we simulate the labels, randomly choosing equal numbers of a priori known labels for each class.

class.labels <- simulate_labels(values = c("Positive", "Negative"), sizes = members_per_class, nobs = c(nlabel/2, nlabel/2))

The list of simulated labels contains the complete vector of `r N`

labels `labels.true`

and the vector of observed labels `labels.obs`

. Unknown labels are set to `NA`

.

```
names(class.labels)
```

Next, we simulate high noise and low noise network data in the form of `r N`

x `r N`

adjacency matrices. The low noise networks obey the class structure defined above, whereas
the high noise networks do not.

networks <- list(LOW_NOISE1 = simulate_network_scalefree(nmemb = members_per_class, pclus = 0.8), LOW_NOISE2 = simulate_network_scalefree(nmemb = members_per_class, pclus = 0.8), HIGH_NOISE = simulate_network_random(nmemb = members_per_class, nnei = 1) )

The networks are sparse binary adjacency matrices, which we can visualise as images. This allows to see the structure within the low noise networks, where we observe 80% of all edges in the 2nd and 4th quadrant, i.e. within each class, as defined above.

image(networks$LOW_NOISE1)

We simulate phenotype matching our simulated labels from two normal distributions with a difference in means that reflects our phenotype effect size. We set the effect size to

effect_size <- 0.25

and simulate the phenotypes

phenotypes <- simulate_phenotype(labels.true = class.labels$labels.true, meandiff = effect_size, sd = 1)

The higher the phenotype effect size is, the easier it is to separate the two classes soleley based on the phenotype. We visualise the phenotypes for the two classes as follows

data.frame(Phenotype = phenotypes[,1], Class = rep(c("Positive", "Negative"), each = N/2)) %>% ggplot() + geom_density(aes(Phenotype, fill = Class), alpha = 0.25, adjust = 2) + theme_bw()

Based on the simulated data above, we now fit the netprioR model for gene prioritisation.
In this example, we will use hyperparameters `a = b = 0.01`

for the Gamma prior of the network
weights in order to yield a sparsifying prior We will fit only one model, setting `nrestarts`

to 1,
whereas in practise multiple restarts are used in order to avoid cases where the EM gets stuck
in local minima. The convergence threshold for the relative change in the log likelihood is set to
1e-6.

np <- netprioR(networks = networks, phenotypes = phenotypes, labels = class.labels$labels.obs, nrestarts = 1, thresh = 1e-6, a = 0.1, b = 0.1, fit.model = TRUE, use.cg = FALSE, verbose = FALSE)

We can investigate the `netprioR`

object using the `summary()`

function.

```
summary(np)
```

It is also possible to plot the `netprioR`

object to get an overview of the model
fit.

plot(np, which = "all")

We can also plot individual plots by setting `which = "weights|ranks|lik"`

.

We can see that the relative weight of the low noise networks is much higher than for the high noise networks indicating that, as expected, the low noise networks are more informative for the learning task.

Second, we evaluate the performance of the prioritised list of genes by comparing
the imputed, missing labels `Yimp[u]`

against the true underlying labels `Y`

and
computing receiver operator characteristic (ROC)

roc.np <- ROC(np, true.labels = class.labels$labels.true, plot = TRUE, main = "Prioritisation: netprioR")

In addition, we compute the ROC curve for the case where we prioritise soleley based on the phenotype

unlabelled <- which(is.na(class.labels$labels.obs)) roc.x <- roc(cases = phenotypes[intersect(unlabelled, which(class.labels$labels.true == levels(class.labels$labels.true)[1])),1], controls = phenotypes[intersect(unlabelled, which(class.labels$labels.true == levels(class.labels$labels.true)[2])),1], direction = ">") plot.roc(roc.x, main = "Prioritisation: Phenotype-only", print.auc = TRUE, print.auc.x = 0.2, print.auc.y = 0.1)

Comparing the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) values for both
cases, we can see that by integrating network data and a priori known labels for TPs
and TNs, we gain about `r round(roc.np$auc - roc.x$auc, 2)`

in AUC.

Here is the output of `sessionInfo()`

on the system on which this document was compiled:

```
sessionInfo()
```

**Any scripts or data that you put into this service are public.**

Embedding an R snippet on your website

Add the following code to your website.

For more information on customizing the embed code, read Embedding Snippets.