PPMR (Probalistic polygenic two sample mendelian randomization), is an efficient R package for two sample MR analysis, accounting for the correlatded instruments and the horizontal pleiotropy. PPMR can provide the estimate of causal effect, the estimates of horizontal pleitropy, and the two corresponding p values.


It is easy to install the development version of PPMR package using the 'devtools' package. The typical install time on a "normal" desktop computer is less than one minute.

# install.packages("devtools")


The main functions is PMR_individual for individual level data, and PMR_summary for summary data. You can find the instructions by '?PMR_individual' and '?PMR_summary'.





One simple example to use the package can be found at

Results reproduced

All results from all methods used in the PPMR paper can be reproduced at


This R package is developed by Zhongshang Yuan and Xiang Zhou.

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PPMR documentation built on Aug. 9, 2019, 5:06 p.m.