skulls_distances: Distances between archaic human skulls

Description Usage Format Details Source References Examples

Description

A data matrix containing the distances between 13 skulls of archaic humans (Table II, Czekanowski, 1909).

Usage

1

Format

The format is a 13 x 13 matrix.

Details

In the original paper (Table II, Czekanowski, 1909) there are minor typographic error. Firstly, distance(Neandertal,Galey Hill)=10.54 while distance(Galey Hill,Neandertal)=10.504 . However, if one analysis the source of the data (Stolyhwa 1908), one will see that it should be 10.504 . Furthermore, the third row is called "Krapina G", while it should be "Krapina C".

Source

The distance matrix is taken from Czekanowski (1909), while the original skull measurements can be found in Stolyhwa (1908).

References

J. Czekanowski (1909). Zur Differentialdiagnose der Neandertalgruppe. In: Korespondentblatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, XL(6/7), 44–47.

K. Stolyhwa (1908). Czaszka z Nowosiolki jako dowod istnienia w okresie historycznym ksztaltow pokrewnych z Homo primigenius. In: Rozprawy Wydzialu matematyczno–przyrodnicznego Akademii Umiejetnosci, XLVIII(B), 1–27. (The skull from Nowosiolka as proof of existence during the era of history shapes common with Homo primigenius, in Polish).

Examples

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## correcting typo rowname
rownames(skulls_distances)[3]<-"Krapina C"
## d(Neandertal,Galey Hill)!=d(Galey Hill,Neandertal)
## in the original paper so we need to correct, 
## e.g. as based on Stolyhwa (1908)'s data
skulls_distances
sym_skulls_distances<-skulls_distances
sym_skulls_distances[5,9]<-10.504
## To obtain Czekanowski (1909)'s original diagram (with different symbols)
czek_matrix_skulls<-czek_matrix(as.dist(sym_skulls_distances),order=NA,original_diagram=TRUE)
plot(czek_matrix_skulls,plot_title="",label.cex=0.5)
## Obtain a symmetric version of the diagram
czek_matrix_skulls_sym<-czek_matrix(as.dist(sym_skulls_distances),order=NA,original_diagram=FALSE)
plot(czek_matrix_skulls_sym,plot_title="",label.cex=0.5)
## Try to find a better ordering
czek_matrix_skulls_OLO<-czek_matrix(as.dist(sym_skulls_distances),order="OLO",original_diagram=TRUE)
plot(czek_matrix_skulls_OLO,plot_title="",label.cex=0.5)
## Better ordering with original symmetric diagram
czek_matrix_skulls_OLO_sym<-czek_matrix(as.dist(sym_skulls_distances),order="OLO",
    original_diagram=FALSE)
plot(czek_matrix_skulls_OLO_sym,plot_title="",label.cex=0.5)

RMaCzek documentation built on Jan. 8, 2021, 5:40 p.m.