High Performance Benchmarks

This document serves as an overview for measuring the performance of RcppAlgos against other tools for generating combinations, permutations, and partitions. This stackoverflow post: Permutations and combinations with/without replacement and for distinct/non-distinct items/multiset has some benchmarks. You will note that the examples in that post were relatively small. The benchmarks below will focus on larger examples where performance really matters and for this reason we only consider the packages arrangements, partitions, and RcppAlgos.

Setup Information

For the benchmarks below, we used a Macbook Pro i7 16Gb machine. We also tested on a Windows and Linux machine with similar specs and obtained similar results.

library(RcppAlgos)
library(partitions)
library(arrangements)
library(microbenchmark)
pertinent_output <- capture.output(sessionInfo())

options(digits = 4)
cat(paste(pertinent_output[1:3], collapse = "\n"))
#> R version 4.2.1 (2022-06-23)
#> Platform: x86_64-apple-darwin17.0 (64-bit)
#> Running under: macOS Monterey 12.3

cat(pertinent_output[which(pertinent_output == "other attached packages:") + 1L])
#> [1] microbenchmark_1.4-7 arrangements_1.1.9   partitions_1.10-4    RcppAlgos_2.6.0

numThreads <- as.integer(RcppAlgos::stdThreadMax() / 2)
print(numThreads)
#> [1] 4

Combinations

Combinations - Distinct

set.seed(13)
v1 <- sort(sample(100, 30))
m <- 21
t1 <- comboGeneral(v1, m, Parallel = T)
t2 <- combinations(v1, m)
stopifnot(identical(t1, t2))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 14307150       21
rm(t1, t2)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = comboGeneral(v1, m, nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = comboGeneral(v1, m),
               cbArrangements = combinations(v1, m),
               times = 15, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar 1.000 1.000 1.000   1.00 1.000 1.000    15
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer 3.560 2.493 2.517   2.47 2.466 2.394    15
#>  cbArrangements 3.798 2.628 2.662   2.63 2.609 2.508    15

Combinations - Repetition

v2 <- v1[1:10]
m <- 20
t1 <- comboGeneral(v2, m, repetition = TRUE, nThreads = numThreads)
t2 <- combinations(v2, m, replace = TRUE)
stopifnot(identical(t1, t2))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 10015005       20
rm(t1, t2)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = comboGeneral(v2, m, TRUE, nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = comboGeneral(v2, m, TRUE),
               cbArrangements = combinations(v2, m, replace = TRUE),
               times = 15, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar 1.000 1.000 1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000    15
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer 2.423 2.394 2.265  2.294 2.130 2.143    15
#>  cbArrangements 2.116 2.322 2.186  2.228 2.084 2.075    15

Combinations - Multisets

myFreqs <- c(2, 4, 4, 5, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 1, 4, 2, 5)
v3 <- as.integer(c(1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610))
t1 <- comboGeneral(v3, 20, freqs = myFreqs, nThreads = numThreads)
t2 <- combinations(freq = myFreqs, k = 20, x = v3)
stopifnot(identical(t1, t2))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 14594082       20
rm(t1, t2)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = comboGeneral(v3, 20, freqs = myFreqs, nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = comboGeneral(v3, 20, freqs = myFreqs),
               cbArrangements = combinations(freq = myFreqs, k = 20, x = v3),
               times = 10, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min   lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar 1.000 1.00 1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000    10
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer 2.647 2.52 2.381  2.342 2.247 2.266    10
#>  cbArrangements 3.535 3.59 3.343  3.326 3.147 3.151    10

Permutations

Permutations - Distinct

v4 <- as.integer(c(2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59))
t1 <- permuteGeneral(v4, 6, nThreads = numThreads)
t2 <- permutations(v4, 6)
stopifnot(identical(t1, t2))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 8910720       6
rm(t1, t2)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = permuteGeneral(v4, 6, nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = permuteGeneral(v4, 6),
               cbArrangements = permutations(v4, 6),
               times = 15, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar 1.000 1.000 1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000    15
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer 2.394 2.390 1.917  2.390 1.984 1.584    15
#>  cbArrangements 3.076 3.079 2.696  3.112 3.108 2.071    15


## Indexing permutation example with the partitions package
t1 <- permuteGeneral(11, nThreads = 4)
t2 <- permutations(11)
t3 <- perms(11)

dim(t1)
#> [1] 39916800       11

stopifnot(identical(t1, t2), identical(t1, t(as.matrix(t3))))
rm(t1, t2, t3)
invisible(gc())

microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = permuteGeneral(11, nThreads = 4),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = permuteGeneral(11),
               cbArrangements = permutations(11),
               cbPartitions   = perms(11),
               times = 5, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar 1.000 1.000 1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000     5
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer 3.315 3.345 2.871  3.190 3.930 1.837     5
#>  cbArrangements 3.595 3.776 3.336  3.781 4.396 2.339     5
#>    cbPartitions 9.950 9.982 8.074  9.558 9.862 4.926     5

Permutations - Repetition

v5 <- v3[1:5]
t1 <- permuteGeneral(v5, 10, repetition = TRUE, nThreads = numThreads)
t2 <- permutations(v5, 10, replace = TRUE)
stopifnot(identical(t1, t2))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 9765625      10
rm(t1, t2)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = permuteGeneral(v5, 10, TRUE, nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = permuteGeneral(v5, 10, TRUE),
               cbArrangements = permutations(x = v5, k = 10, replace = TRUE),
               times = 10, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar 1.000 1.000 1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000    10
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer 2.948 2.955 1.958  2.853 2.347 0.604    10
#>  cbArrangements 2.833 2.844 2.175  2.754 2.330 1.374    10

Permutations - Multisets

v6 <- sort(runif(12))
t1 <- permuteGeneral(v6, 7, freqs = rep(1:3, 4), nThreads = numThreads)
t2 <- permutations(freq = rep(1:3, 4), k = 7, x = v6)
stopifnot(identical(t1, t2))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 19520760        7
rm(t1, t2)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = permuteGeneral(v6, 7, freqs = rep(1:3, 4), nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = permuteGeneral(v6, 7, freqs = rep(1:3, 4)),
               cbArrangements = permutations(freq = rep(1:3, 4), k = 7, x = v6),
               times = 10, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar 1.000 1.000 1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000    10
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer 3.355 3.332 2.535  3.138 1.509 1.983    10
#>  cbArrangements 3.531 3.503 2.824  3.313 2.078 2.065    10

Partitions

Partitions - Distinct

All Distinct Partitions

t1 <- comboGeneral(0:140, freqs=c(140, rep(1, 140)),
                   constraintFun = "sum", comparisonFun = "==",
                   limitConstraints = 140)
t2 <- partitions(140, distinct = TRUE)
t3 <- diffparts(140)

# Each package has different output formats... we only examine dimensions
# and that each result is a partition of 140
stopifnot(identical(dim(t1), dim(t2)), identical(dim(t1), dim(t(t3))),
                    all(rowSums(t1) == 140), all(rowSums(t2) == 140),
                    all(colSums(t3) == 140))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 9617150      16
rm(t1, t2, t3)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = partitionsGeneral(0:140, freqs=c(140, rep(1, 140)), nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = partitionsGeneral(0:140, freqs=c(140, rep(1, 140))),
               cbArrangements = partitions(140, distinct = TRUE),
               cbPartitions   = diffparts(140),
               times = 10, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr    min     lq   mean median     uq    max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000    10
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer  3.032  3.061  2.810  3.428  2.432  2.595    10
#>  cbArrangements  2.814  2.911  2.406  2.843  1.943  2.175    10
#>    cbPartitions 20.374 21.172 16.409 20.305 13.367 11.729    10

Restricted Distinct Partitions

t1 <- comboGeneral(160, 10,
                   constraintFun = "sum", comparisonFun = "==",
                   limitConstraints = 160)
t2 <- partitions(160, 10, distinct = TRUE)
stopifnot(identical(t1, t2))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 8942920      10
rm(t1, t2)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = partitionsGeneral(160, 10, nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = partitionsGeneral(160, 10),
               cbArrangements = partitions(160, 10, distinct = TRUE),
               times = 10, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar 1.000 1.000 1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000    10
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer 3.072 3.056 2.896  3.040 3.017 1.806    10
#>  cbArrangements 3.387 3.361 3.010  3.329 3.345 1.892    10

Partitions - Repetition

All Partitions

t1 <- comboGeneral(0:65, repetition = TRUE, constraintFun = "sum",
                   comparisonFun = "==", limitConstraints = 65)
t2 <- partitions(65)
t3 <- parts(65)

# Each package has different output formats... we only examine dimensions
# and that each result is a partition of 65
stopifnot(identical(dim(t1), dim(t2)), identical(dim(t1), dim(t(t3))),
          all(rowSums(t1) == 65), all(rowSums(t2) == 65),
          all(colSums(t3) == 65))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 2012558      65
rm(t1, t2, t3)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = partitionsGeneral(0:65, repetition = TRUE,
                                                  nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = partitionsGeneral(0:65, repetition = TRUE),
               cbArrangements = partitions(65),
               cbPartitions   = parts(65),
               times = 20, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr    min     lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar  1.000  1.000 1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000    20
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer  2.952  3.050 2.635  3.331 2.353 2.158    20
#>  cbArrangements  2.840  2.825 2.400  2.852 2.136 2.101    20
#>    cbPartitions 11.037 10.916 8.431 10.695 6.768 5.907    20

Restricted Partitions

t1 <- comboGeneral(100, 15, TRUE, constraintFun = "sum",
                   comparisonFun = "==", limitConstraints = 100)
t2 <- partitions(100, 15)
stopifnot(identical(t1, t2))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 9921212      15
rm(t1, t2)

# This takes a really long time... not because of restrictedparts,
# but because apply is not that fast. This transformation is
# needed for proper comparisons. As a result, we will compare
# a smaller example
# t3 <- t(apply(as.matrix(restrictedparts(100, 15, include.zero = F)), 2, sort))
t3 <- t(apply(as.matrix(restrictedparts(50, 15, include.zero = F)), 2, sort))
stopifnot(identical(partitions(50, 15), t3))
rm(t3)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = partitionsGeneral(100, 15, TRUE,
                                                  nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = partitionsGeneral(100, 15, TRUE),
               cbArrangements = partitions(100, 15),
               cbPartitions   = restrictedparts(100, 15,
                                                include.zero = FALSE),
               times = 10, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr    min     lq   mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000    10
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer  3.022  3.014  2.532  2.527 2.403 2.210    10
#>  cbArrangements  3.031  3.037  2.652  2.796 2.373 2.359    10
#>    cbPartitions 15.093 15.061 11.792 12.642 9.781 8.815    10

Partitions - Multisets

Currenlty, RcppAlgos is the only package capable of efficiently generating partitions of multisets. Therefore, we will only time RcppAlgos and use this as a reference for future improvements.

t1 <- comboGeneral(120, 10, freqs=rep(1:8, 15),
                   constraintFun = "sum", comparisonFun = "==",
                   limitConstraints = 120)
dim(t1)
#> [1] 7340225      10
stopifnot(all(rowSums(t1) == 120))
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgos = partitionsGeneral(120, 10, freqs=rep(1:8, 15)),
               times = 10)
#> Unit: milliseconds
#>         expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgos 725.9 730.3 747.5  732.4 760.8 797.9    10

### In RcppAlgos 2.3.6 - 2.4.3
#> Unit: seconds
#>         expr   min      lq   mean median     uq    max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgos 1172.9 1175.1 1223.5 1193.3 1200.5 1482.0    10    10

Compositions

Compositions - Repetition

All Compositions (Small case)

t1 <- compositionsGeneral(0:15, repetition = TRUE)
t2 <- arrangements::compositions(15)
t3 <- partitions::compositions(15)

# Each package has different output formats... we only examine dimensions
# and that each result is a partition of 15
stopifnot(identical(dim(t1), dim(t2)), identical(dim(t1), dim(t(t3))),
          all(rowSums(t1) == 15), all(rowSums(t2) == 15),
          all(colSums(t3) == 15))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 16384      15
rm(t1, t2, t3)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosSer = compositionsGeneral(0:15, repetition = TRUE),
               cbArrangements = arrangements::compositions(15),
               cbPartitions   = partitions::compositions(15),
               times = 20, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr      min       lq     mean  median       uq      max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer   0.6558   0.9888   0.9716   1.003   0.9939   0.9327    20
#>  cbArrangements   1.0000   1.0000   1.0000   1.000   1.0000   1.0000    20
#>    cbPartitions 167.5308 177.1624 203.1560 188.783 241.1307 225.0345    20

For the next two examples, we will exclude the partitions package for efficiency reasons.

All Compositions (Larger case)

t1 <- compositionsGeneral(0:23, repetition = TRUE)
t2 <- arrangements::compositions(23)

# Each package has different output formats... we only examine dimensions
# and that each result is a partition of 23
stopifnot(identical(dim(t1), dim(t2)), all(rowSums(t1) == 23),
          all(rowSums(t2) == 23))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 4194304      23
rm(t1, t2)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = compositionsGeneral(0:23, repetition = TRUE,
                                                    nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = compositionsGeneral(0:23, repetition = TRUE),
               cbArrangements = arrangements::compositions(23),
               times = 20, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar 1.000 1.000 1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000    20
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer 3.094 3.072 3.009  3.052 2.975 2.828    20
#>  cbArrangements 3.106 3.088 3.021  3.059 2.967 2.876    20

Restricted Compositions

t1 <- compositionsGeneral(30, 10, repetition = TRUE)
t2 <- arrangements::compositions(30, 10)

stopifnot(identical(t1, t2), all(rowSums(t1) == 30))
dim(t1)
#> [1] 10015005      10
rm(t1, t2)
invisible(gc())
microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgosPar = compositionsGeneral(30, 10, repetition = TRUE,
                                                    nThreads = numThreads),
               cbRcppAlgosSer = compositionsGeneral(30, 10, repetition = TRUE),
               cbArrangements = arrangements::compositions(30, 10),
               times = 20, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>  cbRcppAlgosPar 1.000 1.000 1.000  1.000 1.000 1.000    20
#>  cbRcppAlgosSer 2.310 2.525 2.304  2.453 2.196 1.833    20
#>  cbArrangements 2.357 2.360 2.157  2.294 2.050 1.694    20

Iterators

We will show one example from each category to demonstrate the efficiency of the iterators in RcppAlgos. The results are similar for the rest of the cases not shown.

Combinations

pkg_arrangements <- function(n, total) {
    a <- icombinations(n, as.integer(n / 2))
    for (i in 1:total) a$getnext()
}

pkg_RcppAlgos <- function(n, total) {
    a <- comboIter(n, as.integer(n / 2))
    for (i in 1:total) a@nextIter()
}

total <- comboCount(18, 9)
total
#> [1] 48620

microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgos    = pkg_RcppAlgos(18, total),
               cbArrangements = pkg_arrangements(18, total),
               times = 15, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>     cbRcppAlgos  1.00  1.00  1.00   1.00  1.00  1.00    15
#>  cbArrangements 22.93 22.28 21.66  21.71 21.31 20.09    15

Permutations

pkg_arrangements <- function(n, total) {
    a <- ipermutations(n)
    for (i in 1:total) a$getnext()
}

pkg_RcppAlgos <- function(n, total) {
    a <- permuteIter(n)
    for (i in 1:total) a@nextIter()
}

total <- permuteCount(8)
total
#> [1] 40320

microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgos    = pkg_RcppAlgos(8, total),
               cbArrangements = pkg_arrangements(8, total),
               times = 15, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>     cbRcppAlgos  1.00  1.00  1.00    1.0  1.00  1.00    15
#>  cbArrangements 21.91 22.04 21.35   21.4 20.94 20.05    15

Partitions

pkg_partitions <- function(n, total) {
    a <- firstpart(n)
    for (i in 1:(total - 1)) a <- nextpart(a)
}

pkg_arrangements <- function(n, total) {
    a <- ipartitions(n)
    for (i in 1:total) a$getnext()
}

pkg_RcppAlgos <- function(n, total) {
    a <- partitionsIter(0:n, repetition = TRUE)
    for (i in 1:total) a@nextIter()
}

total <- partitionsCount(0:40, repetition = TRUE)
total
#> [1] 37338

microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgos    = pkg_RcppAlgos(40, total),
               cbArrangements = pkg_arrangements(40, total),
               cbPartitions   = pkg_partitions(40, total),
               times = 15, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>     cbRcppAlgos  1.00  1.00  1.00   1.00  1.00  1.00    15
#>  cbArrangements 18.03 17.86 16.30  16.03 15.94 12.91    15
#>    cbPartitions 36.25 36.09 32.75  32.36 32.00 25.49    15

Compositions

pkg_partitions <- function(n, total) {
    a <- firstcomposition(n)
    for (i in 1:(total - 1)) a <- nextcomposition(a, FALSE)
}

pkg_arrangements <- function(n, total) {
    a <- icompositions(n)
    for (i in 1:total) a$getnext()
}

pkg_RcppAlgos <- function(n, total) {
    a <- compositionsIter(0:n, repetition = TRUE)
    for (i in 1:total) a@nextIter()
}

total <- compositionsCount(0:15, repetition = TRUE)
total
#> [1] 16384

microbenchmark(cbRcppAlgos    = pkg_RcppAlgos(15, total),
               cbArrangements = pkg_arrangements(15, total),
               cbPartitions   = pkg_partitions(15, total),
               times = 15, unit = "relative")
#> Unit: relative
#>            expr   min    lq  mean median    uq   max neval
#>     cbRcppAlgos  1.00  1.00  1.00   1.00  1.00  1.00    10
#>  cbArrangements 16.50 16.05 15.04  15.59 15.11 12.98    10
#>    cbPartitions 70.29 69.42 63.21  65.71 63.40 50.01    10


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RcppAlgos documentation built on Aug. 15, 2022, 5:09 p.m.