mudiff.mblmodwoc.equalvar: Bayesian sample size determination for differences in normal...

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Note Author(s) References See Also Examples

Description

The function mudiff.mblmodwoc.equalvar uses a mixed Bayesian/likelihood approach to determine conservative sample sizes, in the sense that the desired posterior credible interval coverage and length for the difference between two normal means are guaranteed over a given proportion of data sets that can arise according to the prior information, when variances are equal.

Usage

1
mudiff.mblmodwoc.equalvar(len, alpha, beta, level = 0.95, worst.level = 0.95, m = 50000, mcs = 3)

Arguments

len

The desired total length of the posterior credible interval for the difference between the two unknown means

alpha

First prior parameter of the Gamma density for the common precision (reciprocal of the variance)

beta

Second prior parameter of the Gamma density for the common precision (reciprocal of the variance)

level

The desired fixed coverage probability of the posterior credible interval (e.g., 0.95)

worst.level

The probability that the length of the posterior credible interval of fixed coverage probability level will be at most len

m

The number of points simulated from the preposterior distribution of the data. For each point, the length of the highest posterior density interval of fixed coverage probability level is estimated, in order to approximate the (100*worst.level)%-percentile of the posterior credible interval length. Usually 50000 is sufficient, but one can increase this number at the expense of program running time.

mcs

The Maximum number of Consecutive Steps allowed in the same direction in the march towards the optimal sample size, before the result for the next upper/lower bound is cross-checked. In our experience, mcs = 3 is a good choice.

Details

Assume that a sample from each of two populations will be collected in order to estimate the difference between two independent normal means. Assume that the precisions of the two normal sampling distributions are unknown but equal, with prior information in the form of a Gamma(alpha, beta) density. The function mudiff.mblmodwoc.equalvar returns the required sample sizes to attain the desired length len for the posterior credible interval of fixed coverage probability level for the difference between the two unknown means. The Modified Worst Outcome Criterion used is conservative, in the sense that the posterior credible interval length len is guaranteed over the worst.level proportion of all possible data sets that can arise according to the prior information, for a fixed coverage probability level.

This function uses a Mixed Bayesian/Likelihood (MBL) approach. MBL approaches use the prior information to derive the predictive distribution of the data, but uses only the likelihood function for final inferences. This approach is intended to satisfy investigators who recognize that prior information is important for planning purposes but prefer to base final inferences only on the data.

Value

The required sample sizes (n1, n2) for each group given the inputs to the function.

Note

The sample sizes are calculated via Monte Carlo simulations, and therefore may vary from one call to the next.

It is also correct to state that the coverage probability of the posterior credible interval of fixed length len will be at least level with probability worst.level with the sample sizes returned.

Author(s)

Lawrence Joseph lawrence.joseph@mcgill.ca and Patrick Belisle

References

Joseph L, Belisle P.
Bayesian sample size determination for Normal means and differences between Normal means
The Statistician 1997;46(2):209-226.

See Also

mudiff.mblacc.equalvar, mudiff.mblalc.equalvar, mudiff.mblacc, mudiff.mblalc, mudiff.mblmodwoc, mudiff.mbl.varknown, mudiff.acc.equalvar, mudiff.alc.equalvar, mudiff.modwoc.equalvar, mudiff.acc, mudiff.alc, mudiff.modwoc, mudiff.varknown, mudiff.freq, mu.mblacc, mu.mblalc, mu.mblmodwoc, mu.mbl.varknown, mu.acc, mu.alc, mu.modwoc, mu.varknown, mu.freq

Examples

1
mudiff.mblmodwoc.equalvar(len=0.2, alpha=2, beta=2)

SampleSizeMeans documentation built on May 1, 2019, 6:50 p.m.