knitr::opts_chunk$set( collapse = TRUE, comment = "#>" )

The dual acceptance criteria used for composite materials accept or reject
a new lot of material (or a process change) based on the sample minimum and
sample mean from the new lot of material. Acceptance limits are normally
set such that under the null hypothesis, there is an equal probability
of rejecting the lot due to the minimum and rejecting the lot due to the
mean. These acceptance limits are set so that the probability of rejecting the
lot (due to *either* the minimum or mean) under the null hypothesis is
$\alpha$. If we eliminate the constraint that there is an equal probability
of rejecting a lot due to the minimum or the mean, there is not longer
unique values for the acceptance limits: instead, we can calculate a p-value
from the sample minimum and the sample mean and compare this p-value with
the selected value of $\alpha$.

The `cmstatrExt`

package provides functions for computing acceptance limits,
p-values and curves indicating all values of the minimum and mean that
result in the same p-value. This vignette demonstrates this functionality.
The "two-sample" method in which only the sample statistics for the
qualification data are known.

**Caution:** If the true mean of the population from which the acceptance
sample is drawn is higher than the population mean for the qualification
distribution, then using the p-value method here may declare an acceptance
sample as equivalent even if the standard deviation is larger.
This is due to the fact that this statistical test is a one-sided test.
Similarly, if the acceptance population has a much lower standard deviation
than the qualification population, this test may allow for an undesirable
decrease in mean. As such, considerable judgement is required when using
this method.

In this vignette, we'll use the `cmstatrExt`

package. We'll also use the
`tidyverse`

package for data manipulation and graphing. Finally, we'll use
one of the example data sets from the `cmstatr`

package.

library(cmstatrExt) library(tidyverse) library(cmstatr)

As an example, we'll use the RTD warp tension strength from the
`carbon.fabric.2`

example data set from the `cmstatr`

package. This data is as
follows:

dat <- carbon.fabric.2 %>% filter(condition == "RTD" & test == "WT") dat

From this sample, we can calculate the following summary statistics for the strength:

qual <- dat %>% summarise(n = n(), mean = mean(strength), sd = sd(strength)) qual

We can calculate the acceptance factors acceptance sample size of 8 and
$alpha=0.05$ using the `cmstatrExt`

package as follows:

k <- k_equiv_two_sample(0.05, qual$n, 8) k

These factors can be transformed into limits using the following equations:

$$
W_{indiv} = \bar{x}*{qual} - k_1 s*{qual} \
W_{mean} = \bar{x}*{qual} - k_2 s*{qual}
$$

Implementing this in R:

acceptance_limits <- qual$mean - k * qual$sd acceptance_limits

So, if an acceptance sample has a minimum individual less than
`r format(acceptance_limits[1], digits = 4)`

or a mean less than `r format(acceptance_limits[2], digits = 4)`

, we would
reject it.

You might ask what happens if there's one low value in the acceptance sample that's below the acceptance limit for minimum individual, but the mean is well above the limit. The naive response would be to reject the sample. But, the acceptance limits that we just calculated are based on setting an equal probability of rejecting a sample based on the minimum and the mean under the null hypothesis --- there are other pairs of minimum and mean values that have the same p-value as the acceptance limits that we calculated.

In order to use the p-value function from the `cmstatrExt`

package,
we need to apply the following transformation:

$$
t_1 = \frac{\bar{x}*{qual} - x*{acceptance\,(1)}}{s_{qual}} \
t_2 = \frac{\bar{x}*{qual} - \bar{x}*{acceptance}}{s_{qual}}
$$

As a demonstration, let's first calculate the p-value of the acceptance limits. We should get $p=\alpha$.

p_equiv_two_sample( n = qual$n, m = 8, t1 = (qual$mean - acceptance_limits[1]) / qual$sd, t2 = (qual$mean - acceptance_limits[2]) / qual$sd )

This value is very close to $\alpha=0.05$ --- within expected numeric precision.

Now, let's consider the case where the sample minimum is 116 and the mean is 138. The sample minimum is below the acceptance limit (116 < 120), but the sample mean is well above the acceptance limit (138 > 134). Let's calculate the p-value for this case:

p_equiv_two_sample( n = qual$n, m = 8, t1 = (qual$mean - 116) / qual$sd, t2 = (qual$mean - 138) / qual$sd )

Since this value is well above the selected value of $\alpha=0.05$, we would accept this sample. This sort of analysis can be useful during site- or process-equivalency programs, or for MRB activities.

The `cmstatrExt`

package provides a function that produces a `data.frame`

containing values of $t_1$ and $t_2$ that result in the same p-value.
We can create such a `data.frame`

for p-values of 0.05 as follows:

curve <- iso_equiv_two_sample(qual$n, 8, 0.05, 4, 1.5, 10) curve

We can plot this curve using `ggplot2`

, which is part of the `tidyverse`

package:

curve %>% ggplot(aes(x = t1, y = t2)) + geom_path() + ggtitle("Acceptance criteria for alpha=0.05")

When you plot this, make sure to use `geom_path`

and not `geom_line`

.
The former will plot the points in the order given; the latter
will plot the points in ascending order of the `x`

variable, which
can cause problems in the vertical portion of the graph.

Let's overlay the acceptance limits calculated by the `k_equiv_two_sample`

function as well as the values of `t_1`

and `t_2`

from the sample that
we discussed in the previous section.

curve %>% ggplot(aes(x = t1, y = t2)) + geom_path() + geom_hline(yintercept = k[2], color = "red") + geom_vline(xintercept = k[1], color = "red") + geom_point(data = data.frame( t1 = (qual$mean - 116) / qual$sd, t2 = (qual$mean - 138) / qual$sd ), shape = "*", size = 5) + ggtitle("Acceptance criteria for alpha=0.05")

Or better yet, we can transform this back into engineering units:

curve %>% mutate(x_min = qual$mean - t1 * qual$sd, x_mean = qual$mean - t2 * qual$sd) %>% ggplot(aes(x = x_min, y = x_mean)) + geom_path() + geom_hline(yintercept = acceptance_limits[2], color = "red") + geom_vline(xintercept = acceptance_limits[1], color = "red") + geom_point(data = data.frame( x_min = 116, x_mean = 138 ), shape = "*", size = 5) + ggtitle("Acceptance criteria for alpha=0.05")

**Any scripts or data that you put into this service are public.**

Embedding an R snippet on your website

Add the following code to your website.

For more information on customizing the embed code, read Embedding Snippets.