knitr::opts_chunk$set( collapse = TRUE, comment = "#>" )

After following the "Getting Started" instructions (which can also be seen in the README) to download and or install the package, it can be imported with;

library(collatz) # Optionally library(gmp)

You can jump right into using the functions in this package with integer inputs, or you can use `bigz`

from the `gmp`

library.
Each function, amongst possible *other* parameters, comes with the default parameters `(P=2,a=3,b=1)`

as optional inputs.
In each case, `P[=2]`

is the modulus to check for divisibility of the input by, `a[=3]`

is the factor to multiply the input by,
and `b[=1]`

is the value to add to the product of `a[=3]`

and the input.
There are two basic commands to start with; the `collatz_function`

and the `reverse_function`

.

Returns the output of a single application of a Collatz-esque function.
Without `gmp`

or parameterisation, we can try something simple like

collatz_function(5) collatz_function(16)

If we want change the default parameterisation we can;

collatz_function(4, 5, 2, 3)

Or if we only want to change one of them

collatz_function(3, a=-2)

All the above work fine, but the function doesn't offer protection against overflowing integers by default.
To venture into the world of arbitrary integer inputs we can use an `as.bigz`

from `gmp`

. Compare the two;

collatz_function(99999999999999999999) collatz_function(as.bigz("99999999999999999999"))

Calculates the values that would return the input under the Collatz function.
Without `gmp`

or parameterisation, we can try something simple like

reverse_function(1) reverse_function(2) reverse_function(4)

If we want change the default parameterisation we can;

reverse_function(3, -3, -2, -5)

Or if we only want to change one of them

reverse_function(16, a=5)

All the above work fine, but the function doesn't offer protection against overflowing integers by default.
To venture into the world of arbitrary integer inputs we can use an `as.bigz`

from `gmp`

. Compare the two;

reverse_function(99999999999999999999) reverse_function(as.bigz("99999999999999999999"))

Calculates the "stopping time", or optionally the "total" stopping time.
Without `gmp`

or parameterisation, we can try something simple like

stopping_time(27) stopping_time(27, total_stopping_time=TRUE)

If we want change the default parameterisation we can;

stopping_time(3, 5, 2, 1)

Or if we only want to change one of them

stopping_time(17, a=5)

All the above work fine, but the function doesn't offer protection against overflowing integers by default.
To venture into the world of arbitrary integer inputs we can use an `as.bigz`

from `gmp`

. Compare the two;

stopping_time(99999999999999999999) stopping_time(as.bigz("99999999999999999999"))

As an extra note, the original motivation for creating a range of Collatz themed packages came from some earlier
scripts for calculating the stopping distances under certain parameterisations. An inconsequential result of which
was observing that all of the following, for however high `k`

goes, should equal `96`

!

stopping_time(27) stopping_time(27+as.bigz("576460752303423488")) stopping_time(27+(2*as.bigz("576460752303423488"))) stopping_time(27+(3*as.bigz("576460752303423488"))) stopping_time(27+(4*as.bigz("576460752303423488")))

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