log | R Documentation |

Logarithms and Exponentials

```
## S4 method for signature 'dual'
log(x)
## S4 method for signature 'dual,numeric'
logb(x, base = exp(1))
## S4 method for signature 'numeric,dual'
logb(x, base = exp(1))
## S4 method for signature 'dual,dual'
logb(x, base = exp(1))
## S4 method for signature 'dual'
log10(x)
## S4 method for signature 'dual'
log2(x)
## S4 method for signature 'dual'
log1p(x)
## S4 method for signature 'dual'
exp(x)
## S4 method for signature 'dual'
expm1(x)
```

`x` |
a dual object or numeric value. |

`base` |
a dual object or a positive number. Defaults to |

A dual object containing the transformed values according to the chosen function.

```
x <- dual(sqrt(pi), 1:0)
y <- dual(pi * .75, 0:1)
log(x)
logb(x, base = 1.1)
logb(3.1, base = x)
logb(x, y)
log10(x)
log2(x)
log1p(x)
exp(2*x)
expm1(2*x)
```

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