misclassification: Sensitivity analysis for disease or exposure...

Description Usage Arguments Value References Examples

View source: R/misclassification.R

Description

Simple sensitivity analysis for disease or exposure misclassification. Confidence interval for odds ratio is computed as in Chu et al. (2006), for exposure misclassification.

Usage

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misclassification(
  case,
  exposed,
  type = c("exposure", "outcome"),
  bias_parms = NULL,
  alpha = 0.05
)

Arguments

case

Outcome variable. If a variable, this variable is tabulated against.

exposed

Exposure variable.

type

Choice of misclassification:

  1. exposure: bias analysis for exposure misclassification; corrections using sensitivity and specificity: nondifferential and independent errors,

  2. outcome: bias analysis for outcome misclassification.

bias_parms

Vector defining the bias parameters. This vector has 4 elements between 0 and 1, in the following order:

  1. Sensitivity of exposure (when type = "exposure") or outcome (when type = "outcome") classification among those with the outcome (when type = "exposure") or exposure (when type = "outcome"),

  2. Sensitivity of exposure (or outcome) classification among those without the outcome (or exposure),

  3. Specificity of exposure (or outcome) classification among those with the outcome (or exposure), and

  4. Specificity of exposure (or outcome) classification among those without the outcome (or exposure).

alpha

Significance level.

Value

A list with elements:

obs.data

The analyzed 2 x 2 table from the observed data.

corr.data

The expected observed data given the true data assuming misclassification.

obs.measures

A table of observed relative risk and odds ratio with confidence intervals.

adj.measures

A table of adjusted relative risk and odds ratio with confidence interval for odds ratio.

bias.parms

Input bias parameters.

References

Lash, T.L., Fox, M.P, Fink, A.K., 2009 Applying Quantitative Bias Analysis to Epidemiologic Data, pp.79–108, Springer.

Chu, H., Zhaojie, W., Cole, S.R., Greenland, S., Sensitivity analysis of misclassification: A graphical and a Bayesian approach, Annals of Epidemiology 2006;16:834-841.

Examples

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# The data for this example come from:
# Fink, A.K., Lash,  T.L. A null association between smoking during pregnancy
# and breast cancer using Massachusetts registry data (United States).
# Cancer Causes Control 2003;14:497-503.
misclassification(matrix(c(215, 1449, 668, 4296),
dimnames = list(c("Breast cancer+", "Breast cancer-"),
c("Smoker+", "Smoker-")),
nrow = 2, byrow = TRUE),
type = "exposure",
bias_parms = c(.78, .78, .99, .99))

misclassification(matrix(c(4558, 3428, 46305, 46085),
dimnames = list(c("AMI death+", "AMI death-"),
c("Male+", "Male-")),
nrow = 2, byrow = TRUE),
type = "outcome",
bias_parms = c(.53, .53, .99, .99))

# The following example comes from Chu et al. Sensitivity analysis of
# misclassification: A graphical and a Bayesian approach.
# Annals of Epidemiology 2006;16:834-841.
misclassification(matrix(c(126, 92, 71, 224),
dimnames = list(c("Case", "Control"), c("Smoker +", "Smoker -")),
nrow = 2, byrow = TRUE),
type = "exposure",
bias_parms = c(.94, .94, .97, .97))

Example output

--Observed data-- 
         Outcome: Breast cancer+ 
       Comparing: Smoker+ vs. Smoker- 

               Smoker+ Smoker-
Breast cancer+     215    1449
Breast cancer-     668    4296

                                       2.5%     97.5%
Observed Relative Risk: 0.9653825 0.8523766 1.0933704
   Observed Odds Ratio: 0.9542406 0.8092461 1.1252141
---
                                                               2.5%     97.5%
Misclassification Bias Corrected Relative Risk: 0.9614392                    
   Misclassification Bias Corrected Odds Ratio: 0.9490695 0.7895687 1.1407909
--Observed data-- 
         Outcome: AMI death+ 
       Comparing: Male+ vs. Male- 

           Male+ Male-
AMI death+  4558  3428
AMI death- 46305 46085

                                     2.5%    97.5%
Observed Relative Risk: 1.294347 1.240431 1.350607
   Observed Odds Ratio: 1.323321 1.263639 1.385822
---
                                                        
Misclassification Bias Corrected Relative Risk: 1.344039
   Misclassification Bias Corrected Odds Ratio: 1.406235
--Observed data-- 
         Outcome: Case 
       Comparing: Smoker + vs. Smoker - 

        Smoker + Smoker -
Case         126       92
Control       71      224

                                     2.5%    97.5%
Observed Relative Risk: 2.196866 1.796016 2.687181
   Observed Odds Ratio: 4.320882 2.958402 6.310846
---
                                                             2.5%    97.5%
Misclassification Bias Corrected Relative Risk: 2.377254                  
   Misclassification Bias Corrected Odds Ratio: 5.024508 3.282534 7.690912

episensr documentation built on Aug. 20, 2021, 9:06 a.m.