fields: Tools for Spatial Data

For curve, surface and function fitting with an emphasis on splines, spatial data and spatial statistics. The major methods include cubic, and thin plate splines, Kriging and compact covariances for large data sets. The splines and Kriging methods are supported by functions that can determine the smoothing parameter (nugget and sill variance) and other covariance parameters by cross validation and also by restricted maximum likelihood. For Kriging there is an easy to use function that also estimates the correlation scale (range parameter). A major feature is that any covariance function implemented in R and following a simple format can be used for spatial prediction. There are also many useful functions for plotting and working with spatial data as images. This package also contains an implementation of sparse matrix methods for large spatial data sets and currently requires the sparse matrix (spam) package. Use help(fields) to get started and for an overview. The fields source code is deliberately commented and provides useful explanations of numerical details in addition to the manual pages. The commented source code can be viewed by expanding the package source code "tarball" (ending in tar.gz) and looking in the R subdirectory. Please cite fields along with its DOI in your publications!

Install the latest version of this package by entering the following in R:
AuthorDouglas Nychka [aut, cre], Reinhard Furrer [aut], John Paige [aut], Stephan Sain [aut]
Date of publication2016-12-16 23:26:03
MaintainerDouglas Nychka <>
LicenseGPL (>= 2)

View on CRAN

Man pages

add.image: Adds an image to an existing plot.

arrow.plot: Adds arrows to a plot

as.image: Creates image from irregular x,y,z

as.surface: Creates an "surface" object from grid values.

BD: Data frame of the effect of buffer compositions on DNA strand...

bplot: boxplot

bplot.xy: Boxplots for conditional distribution

CO: Monthly surface meterology for Colorado 1895-1997

CO2: Simulated global CO2 observations

colorbar.plot: Adds color scale strips to an existing plot.

compactToMat: Convert Matrix from Compact Vector to Standard Form

CovarianceUpper: Evaluate covariance over upper triangle of distance matrix Computes Space-Filling "Coverage" designs using Swapping...

drape.plot: Perspective plot draped with colors in the facets.

exp.cov: Exponential family, radial basis functions,cubic spline,...

Exponential: Covariance functions

fields: fields - tools for spatial data

fields.grid: Using MKrig for predicting on a grid.

fields.hints: fields - graphics hints

fields-internal: Fields internal and secondary functions

fields-stuff: Fields supporting functions

fields.tests: Testing fields functions

flame: Response surface experiment ionizing a reagent

FORTRAN.internal: FORTRAN subroutines used in fields functions

gcv.Krig: Finds profile likelihood and GCV estimates of smoothing...

grid.list: Some simple functions for working with gridded data and the...

image2lz: Some simple functions for subsetting images

image.cov: Exponential, Matern and general covariance functions for 2-d...

image.plot: Draws image plot with a legend strip for the color scale...

image.smooth: Kernel smoother for irregular 2-d data

interp.surface: Fast bilinear interpolator from a grid.

Krig: Kriging surface estimate

Krig.Amatrix: Smoother (or "hat") matrix relating predicted values to the...

Krig.engine.default: Basic linear algebra utilities and other computations...

Krig.null.function: Default function to create fixed matrix part of spatial...

Krig.replicates: Collapse repeated spatial locations into unique locations

lennon: Gray image of John Lennon.

minitri: Mini triathlon results

mKrig: "micro Krig" Spatial process estimate of a curve or surface,...

mKrigMLE: Maximizes likelihood for the process marginal variance (rho)...

mKrig.MLE: Maximizes likelihood for the process marginal variance (rho)...

MLESpatialProcess: Estimates key covariance parameters for a spatial process.

NorthAmericanRainfall: Observed North American summer precipitation from the...

ozone: Data set of ozone measurements at 20 Chicago monitoring...

ozone2: Daily 8-hour ozone averages for sites in the Midwest

plot.Krig: Diagnostic and summary plots of a Kriging, spatialProcess or...

plot.surface: Plots a surface

poly.image: Image plot for cells that are irregular quadrilaterals.

predict.Krig: Evaluation of Krig spatial process estimate.

predictSE.Krig: Standard errors of predictions for Krig spatial process...

predictSurface: Evaluates a fitted function or the prediction error as a...

print.Krig: Print kriging fit results.

pushpin: Adds a "push pin" to an existing 3-d plot

qsreg: Quantile or Robust spline regression

QTps: Robust and Quantile smoothing using a thin-plate spline

quilt.plot: Image plot for irregular spatial data. Experiment studying an appetite supressant in rats.

RCMexample: 3-hour precipitation fields from a regional climate model

rdist: Euclidean distance matrix or vector Great circle distance matrix or vector

REML.test: Maximum Likelihood estimates for some Matern covariance...

ribbon.plot: Adds to an existing plot, a ribbon of color, based on values...

RMprecip: Monthly total precipitation (mm) for August 1997 in the Rocky...

set.panel: Specify a panel of plots

sim.Krig: Conditional simulation of a spatial process

sim.rf: Simulates a Stationary Gaussian random field

smooth.2d: Kernel smoother for irregular 2-d data

spam2lz: Conversion of formats for sparse matrices

spatialProcess: Estimates a spatial process model.

splint: Cubic spline interpolation

sreg: Cubic smoothing spline regression

stats: Calculate summary statistics

stats.bin: Bins data and finds some summary statistics.

summary.Krig: Summary for Krig or spatialProcess estimated models.

summary.ncdf: Summarizes a netCDF file handle

supportsArg: Tests if function supports a given argument

surface.Krig: Plots a surface and contours

tim.colors: Some useful color tables for images and tools to handle them.

Tps: Thin plate spline regression

transformx: Linear transformation

US: Plot of the US with state boundaries

US.dat: Outline of coterminous US and states.

vgram: Traditional or robust variogram methods for spatial data

vgram.matrix: Computes a variogram from an image

Wendland: Wendland family of covariance functions and supporting...

world: Plot of the world

WorldBank: Carbon emissions and demographic covariables by country for...

xline: Draw a vertical line

yline: Draw horizontal lines


add.image Man page
arrow.plot Man page
as.image Man page
as.surface Man page
average.image Man page
BD Man page Man page
boxplotVGram Man page
bplot Man page
bplot.xy Man page
cat.matrix Man page Man page
ceiling2 Man page
ChicagoO3 Man page
CO2 Man page
CO2.true Man page
coef.Krig Man page
CO.elev Man page
CO.elevGrid Man page
CO.Grid Man page Man page
CO.loc Man page
colorbar.plot Man page
color.scale Man page
COmonthlyMet Man page
compactToMat Man page
compactTOMatOLD Man page
CO.names Man page
CO.ppt Man page
CO.ppt.MAM Man page
CO.ppt.MAM.climate Man page
COR Man page
CO.tmax Man page
CO.tmax.MAM Man page
CO.tmax.MAM.climate Man page
CO.tmean.MAM.climate Man page
CO.tmin Man page
CO.tmin.MAM Man page
CO.tmin.MAM.climate Man page Man page
CO.years Man page
crop.image Man page
crossCoVGram Man page
css Man page
cubic.cov Man page
\%d*\% Man page
D4transform.image Man page
ddfind Man page
describe Man page
designer.colors Man page
discretize.image Man page
dmaket Man page
double.exp Man page
drape.color Man page
drape.plot Man page
dyadic.2check Man page
dyadic.check Man page
evlpoly Man page
evlpoly2 Man page
Exp.cov Man page Man page
Exp.image.cov Man page
Exponential Man page
ExponentialUpper Man page
Exp.simple.cov Man page
fast.1way Man page
fastTps Man page
fastTpsMLE Man page
fastTps.MLE Man page
fields Man page
fields.color.picker Man page
fields.convert.grid Man page
fields.D Man page
fields.derivative.poly Man page
fields.diagonalize Man page
fields.diagonalize2 Man page
fields.duplicated.matrix Man page
fields.evlpoly Man page
fields.evlpoly2 Man page
fields.hints Man page
fields.mkpoly Man page
fields-package Man page
fieldsPlotColors Man page
fields.pochdown Man page
fields.pochup Man page
fields.rdist.near Man page Man page
fields.tests Man page Man page
find.upcross Man page
fitted.Krig Man page
flame Man page
gauss.cov Man page
gcv.Krig Man page
gcv.sreg Man page
get.rectangle Man page
getVGMean Man page Man page
grid list Man page
grid.list Man page
half.image Man page
igpoly Man page
image2lz Man page
image.plot Man page Man page
imagePlotInfo Man page
imageplot.setup Man page
image.smooth Man page Man page
inpoly Man page
in.poly Man page
in.poly.grid Man page
interp.surface Man page
interp.surface.grid Man page
Krig Man page
Krig.Amatrix Man page
Krig.check.xY Man page
Krig.coef Man page
Krig.cor.Y Man page Man page
Krig.engine.default Man page
Krig.engine.fixed Man page
Krig.engine.knots Man page
Krig.fdf Man page
Krig.fgcv Man page
Krig.fgcv.model Man page Man page
Krig.flplike Man page
Krig.fs2hat Man page
Krig.ftrace Man page
krig.image.parameters Man page
Krig.make.u Man page
Krig.make.W Man page
Krig.make.Wi Man page
Krig.null.function Man page
Krig.parameters Man page
Krig.replicates Man page
Krig.transform.xY Man page
Krig.updateY Man page
Krig.which.lambda Man page
Krig.ynew Man page
larry.colors Man page
lennon Man page
makePredictionPoints Man page
makeSimulationGrid Man page
makeSimulationGrid2 Man page
make.surface.grid Man page
Matern Man page Man page
MaternGLSProfile.test Man page
MaternGLS.test Man page
matern.image.cov Man page
MaternQRProfile.test Man page
MaternQR.test Man page
minimax.crit Man page
minitri Man page
mKrig Man page
mKrigCheckXY Man page
mKrig.coef Man page
mKrig.grid Man page
mKrigJointTemp.fn Man page
mKrig.MLE Man page
mKrigMLEGrid Man page
mKrig.MLE.joint Man page
mKrigMLEJoint Man page
mKrig.trace Man page
MLE.Matern Man page Man page
MLE.objective.fn Man page
MLESpatialProcess Man page Man page
multeb Man page
multrb Man page
multWendlandGrid Man page
NorthAmericanRainfall Man page
ozone Man page
ozone2 Man page
parse.grid.list Man page
plot.Krig Man page
plot.krig.image Man page
plot.qsreg Man page
plot.sim.krig.image Man page Man page
plot.spatialProcess Man page
plot.sreg Man page
plot.surface Man page
plot.vgram Man page
plot.vgram.matrix Man page
poly.image Man page
poly.image.regrid Man page
predictDerivative.Krig Man page
predict.fastTps Man page
predict.interp.surface Man page
predict.Krig Man page
predict.krig.image Man page
predict.mKrig Man page
predict.qsreg Man page
predictSE Man page
predictSE.Krig Man page
predictSE.mKrig Man page
predictSEUsingKrigA Man page
predict.sreg Man page
predict.surface Man page
predictSurface Man page
predict.surface.default Man page
predictSurface.default Man page
predictSurface.fastTps Man page
predictSurface.Krig Man page
predictSurface.mKrig Man page
predictSurfaceSE Man page
predictSurfaceSE.default Man page
predict.Tps Man page
printGCVWarnings Man page
print.Krig Man page
print.krig.image Man page
print.mKrig Man page
print.qsreg Man page Man page
print.spatialProcess Man page
print.sreg Man page
print.summary.Krig Man page
print.summary.krig.image Man page Man page
print.summary.spatialProcess Man page
print.summary.sreg Man page
PRISMelevation Man page
pushpin Man page
qr.q2ty Man page
qr.yq2 Man page
qsreg Man page Man page
qsreg.psi Man page
qsreg.psi.OLD Man page
qsreg.rho Man page
qsreg.rho.OLD Man page
qsreg.trace Man page
QTps Man page
quickPrint Man page
quilt.plot Man page
radbas Man page
radbas.constant Man page
Rad.cov Man page
RadialBasis Man page
Rad.image.cov Man page
Rad.simple.cov Man page Man page
RCMexample Man page
rcss Man page
rdist Man page Man page Man page
rdist.vec Man page
REML.test Man page
resid.Krig Man page
ribbon.plot Man page
RMelevation Man page
RMprecip Man page
set.panel Man page
setup.image.smooth Man page
sim.fastTps.approx Man page
sim.Krig Man page
sim.Krig.approx Man page
sim.krig.image Man page
sim.mKrig.approx Man page
sim.rf Man page
sim.spatialProcess Man page
smooth.2d Man page
spam2full Man page
spam2spind Man page
[ Man page
spatialProcess Man page
spind2full Man page
spind2spam Man page
splint Man page
sreg Man page Man page
sreg.fdf Man page
sreg.fgcv Man page
sreg.fgcv.model Man page Man page Man page
sreg.fs2hat Man page
sreg.trace Man page
stationary.cov Man page
stationary.image.cov Man page
stationary.taper.cov Man page
stats Man page
stats.bin Man page
stats.sim.krig.image Man page
summaryGCV.Krig Man page
summaryGCV.sreg Man page
summary.Krig Man page
summary.krig.image Man page
summary.mKrig Man page
summary.ncdf Man page
summary.qsreg Man page Man page
summary.spatialProcess Man page
summary.sreg Man page
supportsArg Man page
surface Man page
surface.default Man page
surface.Krig Man page
surface.krig.image Man page
surface.mKrig Man page Man page
tim.colors Man page
Tps Man page
transformx Man page
two.colors Man page
unrollZGrid Man page
unscale Man page
US Man page
US.dat Man page
vgram Man page
vgram.matrix Man page
Wendland Man page
Wendland2.2 Man page
wendland.basis Man page
Wendland.beta Man page
wendland.cov Man page
wendland.eval Man page
Wendland.father Man page
wendland.image.cov Man page
Wendland.mother Man page
world Man page
WorldBankCO2 Man page
world.color Man page
world.dat Man page Man page
xline Man page
yline Man page


tests/Krig.test.R tests/vgram.test.R tests/ tests/
tests/misc.test.R tests/derivative.test.R
tests/mKrig.parameters.test.R tests/Wend.test.R
tests/Krig.test.W.R tests/REMLest.test.R
tests/Krig.Z.test.R tests/mKrig.MLE.test.R
tests/mKrig.test.R tests/mKrigMLETest.R tests/Tps.test.R
tests/ tests/KrigGCVREML.test.R
tests/diag.multiply.test.R tests/
R/quickPrint.R R/fastTpsMLE.R R/double.exp.R R/plot.sreg.R R/quilt.plot.R R/rdist.vec.R R/ R/find.upcross.R R/flame.R R/ R/colorbar.plot.R R/ R/poly.image.R R/sim.mKrig.approx.R R/parse.grid.list.R R/fields.diagonalize.R R/RMprecip.R R/ R/smooth.2d.R R/set.panel.R R/stats.bin.R R/US.R R/MLESpatialProcess.R R/fields.color.picker.R R/dyadic.2check.R R/gcv.sreg.R R/mKrig.R R/rad.cov.R R/tim.colors.R R/arrow.plot.R R/ R/predictSE.R R/REMLtest.R R/fields.convert.grid.R R/ R/ R/ R/image.plot.R R/fitted.Krig.R R/fastTps.MLE.R R/summary.spatialProcess.R R/larry.colors.R R/ R/stationary.image.cov.R R/ribbon.plot.R R/minimax.crit.R R/ R/fast.1way.R R/plot.Krig.R R/sim.Krig.R R/summary.Krig.R R/RadialBasis.R R/gauss.cov.R R/gcv.Krig.R R/fields.derivative.poly.R R/plot.spatialProcess.R R/predict.interp.surface.R R/yline.R R/ R/plot.vgram.matrix.R R/sim.rf.R R/color.scale.R R/ChicagoO3.R R/MLEfast.R R/cubic.cov.R R/Matern.R R/radbas.constant.R R/Tps.R R/spam_2lz.R R/ R/mKrigMLEJoint.R R/summaryGCV.sreg.R R/interp.surface.R R/evlpoly.R R/matern.image.cov.R R/image.smooth.R R/rad.image.cov.R R/print.summary.spatialProcess.R R/compactToMat.R R/transformx.R R/print.Krig.R R/dyadic.check.R R/ R/stationary.cov.R R/ R/as.image.R R/print.summary.sreg.R R/Matern.parameters.R R/sim.Krig.approx.R R/cat.matrix.R R/predict.Krig.R R/evlpoly2.R R/supportsArg.R R/rdist.R R/minitri.R R/setup.image.smooth.R R/mKrigCheckXY.R R/ R/predictSEUsingKrigA.R R/world.R R/printGCVWarnings.R R/ R/drape.color.R R/ R/make.surface.grid.R R/ R/MLE.Matern.R R/exp.cov.R R/summary.sreg.R R/coef.Krig.R R/fields.rdist.near.R R/ExponentialUpper.R R/stats.R R/print.spatialProcess.R R/spatialProcess.R R/residuals.Krig.R R/exp.image.cov.R R/ R/predict.sreg.R R/print.sreg.R R/vgram.matrix.R R/predictSurface.Krig.R R/print.summary.Krig.R R/in.poly.R R/fields.diagonalize2.R R/BD.R R/ R/qr.yq2.R R/mKrigMLEGrid.R R/discretize.image.R R/ R/qr.q2ty.R R/splint.R R/wendland.image.cov.R R/rad.simple.cov.R R/ R/ R/ceiling2.R R/mKrig.MLE.R R/add.image.R R/summaryGCV.Krig.R R/summary.ncdf.R R/stationary.taper.cov.R R/exp.simple.cov.R R/predictDerivative.Krig.R R/sim.spatialProcess.R R/drape.plot.R R/ R/ R/QTps.R R/fields.duplicated.matrix.R R/plot.surface.R R/ R/mKrig.MLE.joint.R R/ R/unrollZGrid.R R/ R/unscale.R R/describe.R R/interp.surface.grid.R R/Exponential.R R/ R/xline.R R/as.surface.R R/fields.mkpoly.R
man/Krig.null.function.Rd man/colorbar.plot.Rd man/WorldBank.Rd man/supportsArg.Rd man/minitri.Rd man/fields.hints.Rd man/Krig.Rd man/Krig.engine.default.Rd man/as.image.Rd man/CO2.Rd man/REML.test.Rd man/RCMexample.Rd man/compactToMat.Rd man/transformx.Rd man/quilt.plot.Rd man/drape.plot.Rd man/add.image.Rd man/vgram.Rd man/arrow.plot.Rd man/mKrig.MLE.Rd man/image2lz.Rd man/fields.grid.Rd man/Krig.replicates.Rd man/Tps.Rd man/world.Rd man/vgram.matrix.Rd man/image.plot.Rd man/QTps.Rd man/CO.Rd man/plot.Krig.Rd man/US.Rd man/set.panel.Rd man/tim.colors.Rd man/as.surface.Rd man/fields.tests.Rd man/mKrigMLE.Rd man/predictSurface.Rd man/poly.image.Rd man/image.smooth.Rd man/splint.Rd man/xline.Rd man/RMprecip.Rd man/qsreg.Rd man/stats.Rd man/ribbon.plot.Rd man/Exponential.Rd man/fields.Rd man/ man/Krig.Amatrix.Rd man/fields-internal.Rd man/BD.Rd man/exp.cov.Rd man/lennon.Rd man/image.cov.Rd man/sim.rf.Rd man/predict.Krig.Rd man/interp.surface.Rd man/spam2lz.Rd man/predictSE.Krig.Rd man/summary.Krig.Rd man/mKrig.Rd man/US.dat.Rd man/ozone.Rd man/spatialProcess.Rd man/print.Krig.Rd man/stats.bin.Rd man/fields-stuff.Rd man/summary.ncdf.Rd man/FORTRAN.internal.Rd man/flame.Rd man/bplot.xy.Rd man/grid.list.Rd man/rdist.Rd man/MLESpatialProcess.Rd man/sim.Krig.Rd man/sreg.Rd man/surface.Krig.Rd man/plot.surface.Rd man/bplot.Rd man/ man/ man/smooth.2d.Rd man/ozone2.Rd man/yline.Rd man/NorthAmericanRainfall.Rd man/gcv.Krig.Rd man/pushpin.Rd man/Wendland.Rd man/CovarianceUpper.Rd

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