This function pads a raster by a specified number of cells, creating the effect of a torus. This function is intended for use on simulated landscapes, in order to avoid edge effects
The raster dataset to pad
The amount by which to pad the raster (in the same units as the raster)
A torus is an infinite surface where the top joins the bottom, and the left side meets the right side. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torus for a full mathematical description.
In this function, the torus effect is achieved by adding the specified number of rows of the top of the raster to the bottom (and vice versa) and the specified number of rows of the right of the raster to the left (and vice versa)
raster. Original raster padded by r cells with torus effect (see Details)
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