findRegionalBias: Find and/or remove regional biases

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References Examples

View source: R/regBias.R

Description

Method for identifying regional biases (in most cases biases between countries)

Usage

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findRegionalBias(object,boundaryLines,
                 formulaString = value~1,
                 minKrige = 5, regCode = "regCode", unbias = "default")
removeRegionalBias(object, regionalBias, formulaString = value~1, regCode = "regCode")

Arguments

object

an object of class SpatialPointsDataFrame, at least containing observations and a regional identification code (regCode)

boundaryLines

SpatialPointsDataFrame with points defining the boundaries between regions. This can be found using findBoundaryLines.

formulaString

formula that defines the dependent variable as a linear model of independent variables; suppose the dependent variable has name z, for ordinary and simple kriging use the formula z~1; for universal kriging, suppose z is linearly dependent on x and y, use the formula z~x+y

minKrige

Setting a minimum number of observations necessary for kriging

regCode

the column name of regions in the data polygons, if existing

unbias

defines if a particular data dependent function should be used to set unbiasedness constraints for the biases. "default" gives one additional constraint, assuming that the average of the biases should be equal to zero. See also details below.

regionalBias

List of data frames, one for each region, each containing biases for different networks in the region.

Details

This methods attempts to find biases between regional networks that are separated by a boundary, based on line kriging along these boundaries. A typical example of such networks would be different national networks, with the country borders as boundaryLines, but also other boundaries can be considered. Further details can be found in Skoien et al. (2009).

The parameter unbias can be used to name the unbiasedness function if the user needs a different unbiasedness constraint than the default one. Such a function (with unbias = "new" above) should be similar to the following:

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  unBias.new = function(cDiff,uRegCode) {
    D = cDiff$D
    Q = cDiff$Q
    V = cDiff$V
#
    D = rbind(D,0)
    cd = dim(D)[1]
    ino = which(uRegCode == "NO")
    iis = which(uRegCode == "IS")
    iuk = which(uRegCode == "UK" | uRegCode == "GB")
    if (length(iis) > 0) {
      D[cd,ino] = .5
      D[cd,iuk] = .5
      D[cd,iis]= -1
      Q[cd] = 0
      V[cd] = max(V)
      cd = cd+1
      D = rbind(D,0)
    }
    cd = cd + 1
    D = rbind(D,0)
    D[cd,] = 1
    Q[cd] = 0
    V[cd] = min(V)
    cDiff$D = D
    cDiff$Q = Q
    cDiff$V = V
    return(cDiff)
  }
  

The last part is similar to unbias.default. In the other part is solving the problem where there are no boundaries between Iceland and any other countries. This would cause a missing constraint when searching for the biases, which will make it impossible to find a solution. The solution here sets the bias for Iceland equal to the average of the bias for Norway and United Kingdom. Note that the real bias for Iceland is not really estimated in this case, this construction is mainly to make sure that the system can be solved. If one were only interested in the bias, it would in this case be better to remove Iceland from the data set, as a real bias is not possible to find.

Value

For findRegionalBias; a data.frame with the biases for each country with uncertainty.

For removeRegionalBias; a data.frame with observations, with biases removed

Author(s)

Jon Olav Skoien

References

Skoien, J. O., O. P. Baume, E. J. Pebesma, and G. B. M. Heuvelink. 2010. Identifying and removing heterogeneities between monitoring networks. Environmetrics 21(1), 66-84.

Examples

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library(intamapInteractive)
data(meuse)
observations = data.frame(x = meuse$x,y = meuse$y,value = log(meuse$zinc))
coordinates(observations) = ~x+y
pBoundaries = spsample(observations, 10, "regular",bb = bbox(observations) +  
              matrix(c(-400,-400,400,400),ncol=2),offset=c(0,0))
gridded(pBoundaries) = TRUE
cs = pBoundaries@grid@cellsize[1]/2

Srl = list()
nb = dim(coordinates(pBoundaries))[1]
for (i in 1:nb) {
  pt1 = coordinates(pBoundaries)[i,]
  x1 = pt1[1]-cs
  x2 = pt1[1]+cs
  y1 = pt1[2]-cs
  y2 = pt1[2]+cs

  boun = data.frame(x=c(x1,x2,x2,x1,x1),y=c(y1,y1,y2,y2,y1))
  coordinates(boun) = ~x+y
  boun = Polygon(boun)
  Srl[[i]] = Polygons(list(boun),ID = as.character(i))
}
pBoundaries = SpatialPolygonsDataFrame(SpatialPolygons(Srl),
                                      data = data.frame(ID=c(1:nb)))
observations$ID = over(observations, geometry(pBoundaries))
blines = findBoundaryLines(pBoundaries, regCode = "ID")
rb = findRegionalBias(observations, blines, value~1, regCode = "ID")
rb$regionalBias

obs2 = removeRegionalBias(observations, rb, value~1, regCode = "ID")

intamapInteractive documentation built on Feb. 8, 2021, 5:06 p.m.