perplexity: Language Model Perplexities

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References Examples

View source: R/perplexity.R

Description

Compute language model perplexities on a test corpus.

Usage

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perplexity(
  text,
  model,
  .preprocess = attr(model, ".preprocess"),
  .tknz_sent = attr(model, ".tknz_sent"),
  ...
)

## S3 method for class 'character'
perplexity(
  text,
  model,
  .preprocess = attr(model, ".preprocess"),
  .tknz_sent = attr(model, ".tknz_sent"),
  ...
)

## S3 method for class 'connection'
perplexity(
  text,
  model,
  .preprocess = attr(model, ".preprocess"),
  .tknz_sent = attr(model, ".tknz_sent"),
  batch_size = Inf,
  ...
)

Arguments

text

a character vector or connection. Test corpus from which language model perplexity is computed.

model

an object of class language_model.

.preprocess

a function taking a character vector as input and returning a character vector as output. Preprocessing transformation applied to input before computing perplexity.

.tknz_sent

a function taking a character vector as input and returning a character vector as output. Optional sentence tokenization step applied before computing perplexity.

...

further arguments passed to or from other methods.

batch_size

a length one positive integer or Inf. Size of text batches when reading text from a connection. If Inf, all input text is processed in a single batch.

Details

These generic functions are used to compute a language_model perplexity on a test corpus, which may be either a plain character vector of text, or a connection from which text can be read in batches. The second option is useful if one wants to avoid loading the full text in physical memory, and allows to process text from different sources such as files, compressed files or URLs.

"Perplexity" is defined here, following Ref. \insertCitechen1999empiricalkgrams, as the exponential of the normalized language model cross-entropy with the test corpus. Cross-entropy is normalized by the total number of words in the corpus, where we include the End-Of-Sentence tokens, but not the Begin-Of-Sentence tokens, in the word count.

The custom .preprocess and .tknz_sent arguments allow to apply transformations to the text corpus before the perplexity computation takes place. By default, the same functions used during model building are employed, c.f. kgram_freqs and language_model.

A note of caution is in order. Perplexity is not defined for all language models available in kgrams. For instance, smoother "sbo" (i.e. Stupid Backoff \insertCitebrants-etal-2007-largekgrams) does not produce normalized probabilities, and this is signaled by a warning (shown once per session) if the user attempts to compute the perplexity for such a model. In these cases, when possible, perplexity computations are performed anyway case, as the results might still be useful (e.g. to tune the model's parameters), even if their probabilistic interpretation does no longer hold.

Value

a number. Perplexity of the language model on the test corpus.

Author(s)

Valerio Gherardi

References

\insertAllCited

Examples

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# Train 4-, 6-, and 8-gram models on Shakespeare's "Much Ado About Nothing",
# compute their perplexities on the training and test corpora.
# We use Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream" as test.


train <- much_ado
test <- midsummer

tknz <- function(text) tknz_sent(text, keep_first = TRUE)
f <- kgram_freqs(train, 8, .tknz_sent = tknz)
m <- language_model(f, "kn", D = 0.75)

# Compute perplexities for 4-, 6-, and 8-gram models 
FUN <- function(N) {
        param(m, "N") <- N
        c(train = perplexity(train, m), test = perplexity(test, m))
        }
sapply(c("N = 4" = 4, "N = 6" = 6, "N = 8" = 8), FUN)

kgrams documentation built on Nov. 16, 2021, 9:22 a.m.