Introduction"

knitr::opts_chunk$set(
  collapse = TRUE,
  comment = "#>"
)

In this article, we would like to give an example of how to create a very simple drilldown map with leafdown. \ The goal is to create a map that:

knitr::include_graphics("../man/figures/app_germany_map.png")

Let's first load the libraries we are going to use for our app. \

library(leafdown)
library(leaflet)
library(shiny)
library(dplyr)
library(shinyjs)

(Note that the shinyjs package is loaded for some automatic warning messages that the leafdown map can return to the user of the shiny app.)

SpatialPolygonsDataFrames

leafdown requires a list of SpatialPolygonsDataFrames (spdfs) for the regions we want to display on our map.

To get these spdfs we can use the getData function of the raster package. For "Germany", level = 1 contains the spdf for the federal states and level = 2 the spdf for the administrative districts.

If an spdf comes from a different source, it is important that the structure is identical to the spdfs that come from the raster package.

ger1 <- readRDS("../inst/extdata/ger1-005.R")
ger2 <- readRDS("../inst/extdata/ger2-005.R")
ger1 <- raster::getData(country = "Germany", level = 1)
ger2 <- raster::getData(country = "Germany", level = 2)

The spdf for level = 2 does not display all German umlauts correctly. Therefore we adjust some names so that we can assign our data more easily later on.

ger2@data[c(76, 99, 136, 226), "NAME_2"] <- c(
  "Fürth (Kreisfreie Stadt)",
  "München (Kreisfreie Stadt)",
  "Osnabrück (Kreisfreie Stadt)",
  "Würzburg (Kreisfreie Stadt)"
)

Let's now create our spdfs_list which we can provide to leafdown in our shiny app. It is important that spdfs_list is ordered such that the spdf of the highest map level (in our case the federal states) is the first list element and so on.

list (spdfs_list)
│   
└───spdf (spdf of first map level)
│
└───spdf (spdf of second map level)
spdfs_list <- list(ger1, ger2)

Data

For this app, we will use the example data sets that come with the leafdown package. The data.frame gdp_2014_federal_states contains the GPD of 2014 for the federal states and gdp_2014_admin_districts for the administrative districts of Germany.

head(gdp_2014_federal_states)
head(gdp_2014_admin_districts)

(For more information about the data, please see ?gdp_2014_federal_states or ?gdp_2014_admin_districts respectively)

Leafdown workflow

In this part, we sketch and explain the typical leafdown workflow. \

DiagrammeR::grViz('
digraph { 
  rankdir=LR; 
  rank="same";
  graph [fontname = "Segoe UI", fontsize = 36, 
         nodesep="2", ranksep="1", color = dimgrey];
  node [fontname = "Segoe UI", fontsize = 30, color = dimgrey];
  edge [fontname = "Segoe UI", fontsize = 30, color = dimgrey];
  "Invisible"[style=invis];
  c0 [
    label = "Initialization \n ($new)", fillcolor  = palegreen, 
    style=filled, color = "grey"
  ];

  subgraph cluster01 { 
    label="Map Level 1"; 
    rank="same";
    a0 [label="Add Data \n ($add_data)", fillcolor = OldLace, style=filled]; 
    a1 [label="Draw Map \n ($draw_leafdown)",  fillcolor = Moccasin, style=filled]; 
    a2 [label="Select Shapes", fillcolor = lightyellow, style=filled]; 
    a3 [label="Drill Down \n ($drill_down)", fillcolor = PowderBlue, style=filled]; 
    a0 -> a1;
    a1 -> a2; 
    a2 -> a3; 
  }; 

  subgraph cluster02 
  {
    label="Map Level 2";
    rank="same";
    b0 [label="    Drill Up   \n ($drill_up)", fillcolor = PowderBlue, style=filled]; 
    b3 [label="   Add Data   \n ($add_data) ", fillcolor = OldLace, style=filled]; 
    b1 [label="..."]; 
    b2 [label="Draw Map \n ($draw_leafdown)", fillcolor = Moccasin, style=filled]; 

    b0 -> b1 [dir="back"]; 
    b1 -> b2 [dir="back"]; 
    b2 -> b3 [dir="back"]; 

  }; 

  edge[constraint=false]; 
  a1->b1 [style=invis]; 
  a2->b2 [style=invis]; 
  a3->b3 [style=dotted];
  b0->a0 [style=dotted];
  edge[constraint=true]; 
  Invisible -> b0[style=invis]; 
  edge[constraint=true]; 
  c0 -> a0;
  Invisible -> a0[style=invis]; 
} 
') %>% 
  DiagrammeRsvg::export_svg() %>% 
  charToRaw() %>% 
  rsvg::rsvg_png("res/leafdown_workflow.png")
knitr::include_graphics("../man/figures/leafdown_workflow.png")

(Please note that the execution of the code snippets in this chapter only works within a shiny app)

Initialization

As usual for R6 classes, we create a new object of our Leafdown class using the new() method. \ For this we have to specify the:

input <- reactiveValues(foo = "bar") # a little helper as we are currently not in a shiny session
my_leafdown <- Leafdown$new(spdfs_list, map_output_id = "leafdown", input = input)

Data

In the next step, we add data to our leafdown object. Using the attribute $curr_data we can retrieve the data of the current map level. At the beginning $curr_data only contains metadata. With metadata, we refer to the data that describes the polygons, such as region names, region IDs, etc. The metadata is automatically set with the spdf_list[[i]]@data where i is the current map level.

metadata <- my_leafdown$curr_data
print(head(metadata))

Now we can add new columns for variables we want to display on our map to the existing metadata. It is important that the initial metadata remains unchanged and no rows are removed.

new_data <- metadata %>% dplyr::left_join(gdp_2014_federal_states, by = c("NAME_1" = "Federal_State"))

After creating our new data set, we give it to our leafdownobject with the $add_data method.

my_leafdown$add_data(new_data)

The current data of a leafdown object can be retrieved via the $curr_data attribute.

print(head(my_leafdown$curr_data))

Draw map

To draw the map we use the method $draw_leafdown. The specified arguments in the method are internally handed over to the addPolygons function of leaflet. Therefore attributes like fillColor or opacity can be specified just as for a usual leaflet map.

map <- my_leafdown$draw_leafdown(
  fillColor = ~ colorNumeric("Blues", GDP_2014)(GDP_2014)
) 

The $draw_leafdown method returns a usual leaflet map. This also allows us to add a legend or a background to our map.

map <- map %>%
  addLegend(
    pal = colorNumeric("Blues", data$GDP_2014),
    values = data$GDP_2014
  )

Selection

Let's now have look at what happens when a user clicks on a region. Internally a leafdown object has an observer for shape_click events. Once a user clicks on a certain region, this region becomes "active" and its boundaries on the map are highlighted. (If the clicked region is already active, it becomes inactive). We can retrieve the data of active regions via the $curr_sel_data attribute. Assuming that the user clicked on Bavaria and Hesse than $curr_sel_data would look as follows:

my_leafdown$curr_sel_data()
subset(my_leafdown$curr_data, NAME_1 %in% c("Bayern", "Hessen"))

Note that this attribute is a reactiveValue that allows to update graphs and other elements upon a user click. For more on the connection to other elements please see the following tutorial.

Drilldown

Using the $drill_down method we can now drill down to the admin districts of the active federal states.

my_leafdown$drill_down()

This will update the currently active spdf (my_leafdown$curr_spdf) which then only contains polygons and corresponding metadata for regions whose parents were active in the upper (previous) map level. In our case the parents are "Bavaria" and "Hesse", so only spdfs of admin districts within these federal states will be contained in my_leafdown$curr_spdf.

length(my_leafdown$curr_spdf)
print(2)

Data

The updated data can then again be retrieved via $curr_data.

my_leafdown$drill_down()
metadata <- my_leafdown$curr_data
head(metadata)
head(subset(ger2@data, GID_1 %in% c("DEU.2_1", "DEU.7_1")))
unique(metadata$NAME_1)
c("Bayern", "Hessen")

Just as before we can add new columns for variables we want to display on our map to the existing metadata.

new_data <- metadata %>% 
  dplyr::left_join(gdp_2014_admin_districts, by = c("NAME_2" = "Admin_District"))
my_leafdown$add_data(new_data)

Again, the current data can be retrieved via the $curr_data attribute.

head(my_leafdown$curr_data)
ger2@data %>% 
  filter(GID_1 %in% c("DEU.2_1", "DEU.7_1")) %>% 
  dplyr::left_join(gdp_2014_admin_districts, by = c("NAME_2" = "Admin_District")) %>% 
  slice_head(n = 5) %>% 
  as.data.frame()

Draw map

After adding GDP_2014 to our admin district data, we can again draw our map. Note that all non-active parent regions grayed out in the background.

my_leafdown$draw_leafdown(
  fillColor = ~ colorNumeric("Blues", GDP_2014)(GDP_2014)
)

Drillup

Using the $drill_up method we can now drill back up to the federal states. Note that the active regions (we selected before we drilled down) are still active.

my_leafdown$drill_down()

Data

To draw the map we first have to add our federal states data again.

new_data <- metadata %>% left_join(gdp_2014_federal_states, by = c("NAME_1" = "Federal_State"))

Draw map

And again we can draw our map just as usual.

map <- my_leafdown$draw_leafdown(
  fillColor = ~ colorNumeric("Blues", GDP_2014)(GDP_2014)
) 

Shiny App

Preparation

library(leafdown)
library(leaflet)
library(shiny)
library(dplyr)
library(shinyjs)
ger1 <- raster::getData(country = "Germany", level = 1)
ger2 <- raster::getData(country = "Germany", level = 2)
ger2@data[c(76, 99, 136, 226), "NAME_2"] <- c(
  "Fürth (Kreisfreie Stadt)",
  "München (Kreisfreie Stadt)",
  "Osnabrück (Kreisfreie Stadt)",
  "Würzburg (Kreisfreie Stadt)"
)
spdfs_list <- list(ger1, ger2)

UI

ui <- shiny::fluidPage(
  tags$style(HTML(".leaflet-container {background: #ffffff;}")),
  useShinyjs(),
  actionButton("drill_down", "Drill Down"),
  actionButton("drill_up", "Drill Up"),
  leafletOutput("leafdown", height = 600),
)

Server

# Little helper function for hover labels
create_labels <- function(data, map_level) {
  labels <- sprintf(
    "<strong>%s</strong><br/>%g € per capita</sup>",
    data[, paste0("NAME_", map_level)], data$GDP_2014
  )
  labels %>% lapply(htmltools::HTML)
}
server <- function(input, output) {
  my_leafdown <- Leafdown$new(spdfs_list, "leafdown", input)
  update_leafdown <- reactiveVal(0)

  observeEvent(input$drill_down, {
    my_leafdown$drill_down()
    update_leafdown(update_leafdown() + 1)
  })

  observeEvent(input$drill_up, {
    my_leafdown$drill_up()
    update_leafdown(update_leafdown() + 1)
  })

  output$leafdown <- renderLeaflet({
    update_leafdown()
    meta_data <- my_leafdown$curr_data
    curr_map_level <- my_leafdown$curr_map_level
    if (curr_map_level == 1) {
      data <- meta_data %>% left_join(gdp_2014_federal_states, by = c("NAME_1" = "Federal_State"))
    } else {
      data <- meta_data %>% left_join(gdp_2014_admin_districts, by = c("NAME_2" = "Admin_District"))
    }

    my_leafdown$add_data(data)
    labels <- create_labels(data, curr_map_level)
    my_leafdown$draw_leafdown(
      fillColor = ~ colorNumeric("Blues", GDP_2014)(GDP_2014),
      weight = 2, fillOpacity = 0.8, color = "grey", label = labels,
      highlight = highlightOptions(weight = 5, color = "#666", fillOpacity = 0.7)
    ) %>%
      addLegend("topright",
        pal = colorNumeric("Blues", data$GDP_2014),
        values = data$GDP_2014,
        title = "GDP per capita (2014)",
        labFormat = labelFormat(suffix = "€"),
        opacity = 1
      )
  })
}

Run App

shinyApp(ui, server)




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leafdown documentation built on April 29, 2021, 9:06 a.m.