View source: R/create_slope_cs.R
create_slope_cs  R Documentation 
Creates a cost surface based on the difficulty of moving up and down slope. This function implements multiple isotropic and anisotropic cost functions that estimate the 'cost' of human movement when traversing a landscape
The supplied 'spatRaster' object can have a projected or geographic coordinate system
create_slope_cs(
x,
cost_function = "tobler",
neighbours = 16,
crit_slope = 12,
max_slope = NULL,
exaggeration = FALSE
)
x 

cost_function 

neighbours 

crit_slope 

max_slope 

exaggeration 

The following cost functions have been implemented however users may also supply their own cost function (see Examples):
"tobler", "tobler offpath", "davey", 'rees', "irmischerclarke male", "irmischerclarke offpath male", "irmischerclarke female", "irmischerclarke offpath female", "modified tobler", 'garmy', 'kondosaino', "wheeled transport", "herzog", "lloberasluckin", "naismith", "minetti", "campbell","campbell 2019 1","campbell 2019 5" ,"campbell 2019 10","campbell 2019 15","campbell 2019 20","campbell 2019 25","campbell 2019 30","campbell 2019 35","campbell 2019 40","campbell 2019 45","campbell 2019 50","campbell 2019 55","campbell 2019 60","campbell 2019 65","campbell 2019 70","campbell 2019 75","campbell 2019 80","campbell 2019 85","campbell 2019 90","campbell 2019 95","campbell 2019 99", "sullivan 167","sullivan 5", "sullivan 833"
Multiple travel rate percentiles implemented for campbell 2019 and sullivan, e.g. "campbell 2019 50" is the 50th percentile
conductanceMatrix
that numerically expresses the difficulty of moving across slope based on the provided cost function
Joseph Lewis
Tobler, W. 1993. Three Presentations on Geographical Analysis and Modeling. Technical Report 931 (Santa Barbara, CA)
Davey, R.C., M. Hayes and J.M. Norman 1994. “Running Uphill: An Experimental Result and Its Applications,” The Journal of the Operational Research Society 45, 25
Rees, W.G. 2004. “Leastcost paths in mountainous terrain,” Computers & Geosciences 30, 203–09
Irmischer, I.J. and K.C. Clarke 2018. “Measuring and modeling the speed of human navigation,” Cartography and Geographic Information Science 45, 177–86
MárquezPérez, J., I. VallejoVillalta and J.I. ÁlvarezFrancoso 2017. “Estimated travel time for walking trails in natural areas,” Geografisk TidsskriftDanish Journal of Geography 117, 53–62
Garmy, P. et al. 2005. “Logiques spatiales et ‘systèmes de villes’ en Lodévois de l’Antiquité à la période moderne,” Temps et espaces de l’homme en société, analyses et modèles spatiaux en archéologie 335–46
Kondo, Y. and Y. Seino 2010. “GPSaided walking experiments and datadriven travel cost modeling on the historical road of NakasendōKisoji (Central Highland Japan),” Making History Interactive (Proceedings of the 37th International Conference, Williamsburg, Virginia, United States of America) 158–65
Herzog, I. 2013. “The potential and limits of Optimal Path Analysis,” in Bevan, A. and M. Lake (edd.), Computational approaches to archaeological spaces (Publications of the Institute of Archaeology, University College London) 179–211
Llobera, M. and T.J. Sluckin 2007. “Zigzagging: Theoretical insights on climbing strategies,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 249, 206–17
Naismith, W. 1892. “Excursions: Cruach Ardran, Stobinian, and Ben More,” Scottish Mountaineering club journal 2, 136
Minetti, A.E. et al. 2002. “Energy cost of walking and running at extreme uphill and downhill slopes,” Journal of Applied Physiology 93, 1039–46
Campbell, M.J., P.E. Dennison and B.W. Butler 2017. “A LiDARbased analysis of the effects of slope, vegetation density, and ground surface roughness on travel rates for wildland firefighter escape route mapping,” Int. J. Wildland Fire 26, 884
Campbell, M.J. et al. 2019. “Using crowdsourced fitness tracker data to model the relationship between slope and travel rates,” Applied Geography 106, 93–107
Sullivan, P.R. et al. 2020. “Modeling Wildland Firefighter Travel Rates by Terrain Slope: Results from GPSTracking of Type 1 Crew Movement,” Fire 3, 52
r < terra::rast(system.file("extdata/SICILY_1000m.tif", package="leastcostpath"))
slope_cs < create_slope_cs(x = r, cost_function = "tobler", neighbours = 4)
slope_cs < create_slope_cs(x = r, cost_function = "campbell 2019 50", neighbours = 4)
slope_cs2 < create_slope_cs(x = r,
cost_function = function(x) {(6 * exp(3.5 * abs(x + 0.05))) / 3.6}, neighbours = 4)
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