Soybean: Soybean Database

SoybeanR Documentation

Soybean Database


There are 19 classes, only the first 15 of which have been used in prior work. The folklore seems to be that the last four classes are unjustified by the data since they have so few examples. There are 35 categorical attributes, some nominal and some ordered. The value “dna” means does not apply. The values for attributes are encoded numerically, with the first value encoded as “0,” the second as “1,” and so forth.


data("Soybean", package = "mlbench")


A data frame with 683 observations on 36 variables. There are 35 categorical attributes, all numerical and a nominal denoting the class.

[,1] Class the 19 classes
[,2] date apr(0),may(1),june(2),july(3),aug(4),sept(5),oct(6).
[,3] plant.stand normal(0),lt-normal(1).
[,4] precip lt-norm(0),norm(1),gt-norm(2).
[,5] temp lt-norm(0),norm(1),gt-norm(2).
[,6] hail yes(0),no(1).
[,7] crop.hist dif-lst-yr(0),s-l-y(1),s-l-2-y(2), s-l-7-y(3).
[,8] area.dam scatter(0),low-area(1),upper-ar(2),whole-field(3).
[,9] sever minor(0),pot-severe(1),severe(2).
[,10] seed.tmt none(0),fungicide(1),other(2).
[,11] germ 90-100%(0),80-89%(1),lt-80%(2).
[,12] plant.growth norm(0),abnorm(1).
[,13] leaves norm(0),abnorm(1).
[,14] leaf.halo absent(0),yellow-halos(1),no-yellow-halos(2).
[,15] leaf.marg w-s-marg(0),no-w-s-marg(1),dna(2).
[,16] leaf.size lt-1/8(0),gt-1/8(1),dna(2).
[,17] leaf.shread absent(0),present(1).
[,18] leaf.malf absent(0),present(1).
[,19] leaf.mild absent(0),upper-surf(1),lower-surf(2).
[,20] stem norm(0),abnorm(1).
[,21] lodging yes(0),no(1).
[,22] stem.cankers absent(0),below-soil(1),above-s(2),ab-sec-nde(3).
[,23] canker.lesion dna(0),brown(1),dk-brown-blk(2),tan(3).
[,24] fruiting.bodies absent(0),present(1).
[,25] ext.decay absent(0),firm-and-dry(1),watery(2).
[,26] mycelium absent(0),present(1).
[,27] int.discolor none(0),brown(1),black(2).
[,28] sclerotia absent(0),present(1).
[,29] fruit.pods norm(0),diseased(1),few-present(2),dna(3).
[,30] fruit.spots absent(0),col(1),br-w/blk-speck(2),distort(3),dna(4).
[,31] seed norm(0),abnorm(1).
[,32] mold.growth absent(0),present(1).
[,33] seed.discolor absent(0),present(1).
[,34] seed.size norm(0),lt-norm(1).
[,35] shriveling absent(0),present(1).
[,36] roots norm(0),rotted(1),galls-cysts(2).


  • Source: R.S. Michalski and R.L. Chilausky "Learning by Being Told and Learning from Examples: An Experimental Comparison of the Two Methods of Knowledge Acquisition in the Context of Developing an Expert System for Soybean Disease Diagnosis", International Journal of Policy Analysis and Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1980.

  • Donor: Ming Tan & Jeff Schlimmer (

These data have been taken from the UCI Repository Of Machine Learning Databases (Blake & Merz 1998) and were converted to R format by Evgenia Dimitriadou in the late 1990s.

The current version of the UC Irvine Machine Learning Repository Soybean (Large) data set is available from \Sexpr[results=rd]{tools:::Rd_expr_doi("10.24432/C5JG6Z")}.


Tan, M., & Eshelman, L. (1988). Using weighted networks to represent classification knowledge in noisy domains. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Machine Learning (pp. 121-134). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Morgan Kaufmann. – IWN recorded a 97.1% classification accuracy – 290 training and 340 test instances

Fisher,D.H. & Schlimmer,J.C. (1988). Concept Simplification and Predictive Accuracy. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Machine Learning (pp. 22-28). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Morgan Kaufmann. – Notes why this database is highly predictable

Blake, C.L. & Merz, C.J. (1998). UCI Repository of Machine Learning Databases. Irvine, CA: University of California, Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Science. Formerly available from ‘⁠⁠’.


data("Soybean", package = "mlbench")

mlbench documentation built on May 29, 2024, 4:49 a.m.

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