dDynOcc: Dynamic occupancy distribution for use in 'nimble' models...

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) See Also Examples

Description

Dynamic occupancy distribution for use in nimble models dDynOcc_** and rDynOcc_** provide dynamic occupancy model distributions that can be used directly from R or in nimble models.

Usage

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
dDynOcc_vvm(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

dDynOcc_vsm(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

dDynOcc_svm(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

dDynOcc_ssm(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

rDynOcc_vvm(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

rDynOcc_vsm(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

rDynOcc_svm(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

rDynOcc_ssm(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

dDynOcc_vvv(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

dDynOcc_vsv(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

dDynOcc_svv(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

dDynOcc_ssv(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

rDynOcc_vvv(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

rDynOcc_vsv(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

rDynOcc_svv(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

rDynOcc_ssv(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

dDynOcc_vvs(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

dDynOcc_vss(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

dDynOcc_svs(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

dDynOcc_sss(x, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end, log = 0)

rDynOcc_vvs(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

rDynOcc_vss(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

rDynOcc_svs(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

rDynOcc_sss(n, init, probPersist, probColonize, p, start, end)

Arguments

x

detection/non-detection matrix of 0s (not detected) and 1s (detected). Rows represent primary sampling occasions (e.g. different seasons). Columns are secondary sampling locations (e.g. replicate visits within a season) that may be different for each row

init

probability of occupancy in the first sampling period

probPersist

persistence probability–probability an occupied cell remains occupied. 1-extinction probability. Scalar for dDynOcc_s**, vector for dDynOcc_v**. If vector, should have length dim(x)[1] - 1 since no transition occurs after the last observation

probColonize

colonization probability. Probability that an unoccupied cell becomes occupied. Scalar for dDynOcc_*s*, vector for dDynOcc_*v*. If vector, should have length dim(x)[1] - 1 since no transition occurs after the last observation

p

Detection probabilities. Scalar for dDynOcc_**s, vector for dDynOcc_**v, matrix for dDynOcc_**m. If a matrix, dimensions should match x

start

indicates the column number of the first observation in each row of x. A vector of length dim(x)[1]. This allows for different time periods to have different numbers of sampling occasions

end

indicates the column number of the last observation in each row of x. A vector of length dim(x)[1]. This allows for different time periods to have different numbers of sampling occasions

log

TRUE (return log probability) or FALSE (return probability)

n

number of random draws, each returning a matrix of dimension c(min(start), max(end)). Currently only n = 1 is supported, but the argument exists for standardization of "r" functions

Details

These nimbleFunctions provide distributions that can be used directly in R or in nimble hierarchical models (via nimbleCode and nimbleModel).

The probability (or likelihood) of observation x[t, o] depends on the occupancy status of the site at time t-1, the transitition probability of persistence (probPersist or probPersist[t-1]), colonization (probColonize or probColonize[t-1]), and a detection probability (p, p[t], or p[t, o]).

The first two letters following the 'dDynOcc_' indicate whether the probabilities of persistence and colonization are a constant scalar (s) or time-indexed vector (v). For example, dDynOcc_svm takes scalar persistence probability probPersist with a vector of colonization probabilities probColonize[1:(T-1)].

When vectors, probColonize and probPersist may be of any length greater than or equal to length(x) - 1. Only the first length(x) - 1 indices are used, each corresponding to the transition from time t to t+1 (e.g. probColonize[2] describes the transition probability from t = 2 to t = 3). All extra values are ignored. This is to make it easier to use one distribution for many sites, some requiring probabilities of length 1.

The third letter in the suffix indicates whether the detection probability is a constant (scalar), time-dependent (vector), or both time-dependent and dependent on observation occasion (matrix). For example, dDynOcc_svm takes a matrix of detection probabilities p[1:T, 1:O].

The arguments start and end allow different time periods to contain different numbers of sampling events. Suppose you have observations for samples in three seasons; in the first two seasons, there are four observations, but in the third, there are only three. The start and end could be provided as start = c(1,1,1) and end = c(4,4,3). In this case, the value of x[4,4] would be ignored.

For more explanation, see package vignette (vignette("Introduction_to_nimbleEcology")).

Compared to writing nimble models with a discrete latent state for true occupancy status and a separate scalar datum for each observation, use of these distributions allows one to directly sum (marginalize) over the discrete latent state and calculate the probability of all observations from one site jointly.

These are nimbleFunctions written in the format of user-defined distributions for NIMBLE's extension of the BUGS model language. More information can be found in the NIMBLE User Manual at https://r-nimble.org.

When using these distributions in a nimble model, the left-hand side will be used as x, and the user should not provide the log argument.

For example, in nimble model code,

detections[1:T, 1:O] ~ dDynOcc_ssm(init, probPersist = persistence_prob, probColonize = colonization_prob, p = p[1:T, 1:O], start = start[1:T], end = end[1:T])

declares that the detections[1:T] vector follows a dynamic occupancy model distribution with parameters as indicated, assuming all the parameters have been declared elsewhere in the model. This will invoke (something like) the following call to dDynOcc_ssm when nimble uses the model such as for MCMC:

dDynOcc_ssm(detections[1:T, 1:O], init, probPersist = persistence_prob, probColonize = colonization_prob, p = p[1:T, 1:O], start = start[1:T], end = end[1:T], log = TRUE)

If an algorithm using a nimble model with this declaration needs to generate a random draw for detections[1:T, 1:O], it will make a similar invocation of rDynOcc_ssm, with n = 1.

If the colonization probabilities are time-dependent, one would use:

detections[1:T] ~ dDynOcc_svm(nrep, init = init_prob, probPersist = persistence_prob, probColonize = colonization_prob[1:(T-1)], p = p[1:T, 1:O])

Value

For dDynOcc_***: the probability (or likelihood) or log probability of observation vector x. For rDynOcc_***: a simulated detection history, x.

Author(s)

Ben Goldstein, Perry de Valpine and Lauren Ponisio

See Also

For basic occupancy models, see documentation for dOcc.

Examples

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
# Set up constants and initial values for defining the model
  x <- matrix(c(0,0,0,0,
                1,1,1,0,
                0,0,0,0,
                0,0,1,0,
                0,0,0,0), nrow = 4)
  start <- c(1,1,2,1,1)
  end <- c(5,5,5,4,5)
  init <- 0.7
  probPersist <- 0.5
  probColonize <- 0.2
  p <- matrix(rep(0.5, 20), nrow = 4)


# Define code for a nimbleModel
 nc <- nimbleCode({

   x[1:2, 1:5] ~ dDynOcc_vvm(init,
     probPersist[1:2], probColonize[1:2], p[1:2,1:5],
     start = start[1:4], end = end[1:4])

   init ~ dunif(0,1)

   for (i in 1:2) {
     probPersist[i] ~ dunif(0,1)
     probColonize[i] ~ dunif(0,1)
   }

   for (i in 1:2) {
     for (j in 1:5) {
       p[i,j] ~ dunif(0,1)
     }
   }
 })

# Build the model, providing data and initial values
DynOcc_model <- nimbleModel(nc, data = list(x = x),
                            constants = list(start = start, end = end),
                            inits = list(p = p, probPersist = probPersist,
                                         init = init, probColonize = probColonize))

# Calculate log probability of data from the model
DynOcc_model$calculate("x")
# Use the model for a variety of other purposes...

nimbleEcology documentation built on May 4, 2021, 9:06 a.m.