phonics package for R is designed to provide a variety of
phonetic indexing algorithms in common and not-so-common use today. The
algorithms generally reduce a string to a symbolic representation
approximating the sound made by pronouncing the string. They can be
used to match names, words, and as a proxy for assorted string distance
All algorithms, except the Match Rating Approach, accept a character
vector or vector of character vectors as the input. These are converted
to their phonetic spelling using the relevant algorithm. For example,
we shall consider the Soundex and Refined Soundex algorithms. The
Soundex algorithm is implemented as the
soundex function and the
Refined Soundex method is given in the
refinedSoundex function, and
we can observe them in the following examples.
library("phonics") x1 <- "Catherine" x2 <- "Kathryn" x3 <- "Katrina" x4 <- "William" x <- c(x1, x2, x3, x4) soundex(x1) soundex(x2) soundex(x) refinedSoundex(x1) refinedSoundex(x2)
Both functions accept a
maxCodeLen that limits the length of the
returned code. Except where noted, all the algorithms support the
maxCodeLen option to change the maximum or expected code length
returned, as appropriate.
Beyond soundex, additional algorithms are available, as shown in the following table.
| Algorithm | Function Name | |:------------------------------------------------------|:--------------| | Caverphone | caverphone | | Cologne Phonetic | cologne | | Lein Name Coding | lein | | Metaphone | metaphone | | New York State Identification and Intelligence System | nysiis | | Oxford Name Compression Algorithm | onca | | Phonex | phonex | | Roger Root Name Coding Procedure | rogerroot | | Statistics Canada Name Coding | statcan |
Unlike other algorithms described here, MRA is a two-stage algorithm with separate encoding and comparison routines. For instance, the results of Soundex on two different strings can be directly compared to test for equality:
soundex(x1) == soundex(x2) soundex(x2) == soundex(x3)
However, the MRA encoding algorithm may return different encodings for
similar strings that should match. So the second stage, for comparison,
is used to compare to MRA-encoded strings. The encoding algorithm is
mra_encode and the comparison algorithm is provided by
(mra1 = mra_encode("Katherine")) (mra2 = mra_encode("Catherine")) (mra3 = mra_encode("Katarina")) mra_compare(mra1, mra2) mra_compare(mra1, mra3) mra_compare(mra2, mra3)
The threshold necessary to establish similarity gets smaller as the encoded strings get larger. This leads to some interesting results. For instance, Catherine and William match as names.
This paper has outlined the
phonics package for R. Included in this
package are several English-, German-, and French-language suitable
algorithms for phonetically reducing names and strings. These can be
used for comparison and indexing, as well as later record-linkage.
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