election: 2000 National Election Studies survey (sample data)

Description Usage Format Source Examples

Description

Survey data from the 2000 American National Election Study. Two sets of six questions with four responses each, asking respondents' opinions of how well various traits (moral, caring, knowledgable, good leader, dishonest, intelligent) describe presidential candidates Al Gore and George W. Bush. The responses are (1) Extremely well; (2) Quite well; (3) Not too well; (4) Not well at all. Many respondents have varying numbers of missing values on these variables.

The data set also includes potential covariates VOTE3, the respondent's 2000 vote choice (when asked); AGE, the respondent's age; EDUC, the respondent's level of education; GENDER, the respondent's gender; and PARTY, the respondent's Democratic-Republican partisan identification.

VOTE3 is coded as (1) Gore; (2) Bush; (3) Other.

EDUC is coded as (1) 8 grades or less; (2) 9-11 grades, no further schooling; (3) High school diploma or equivalency; (4) More than 12 years of schooling, no higher degree; (5) Junior or community college level degree; (6) BA level degrees, no advanced degree; (7) Advanced degree.

GENDER is coded as (1) Male; (2) Female.

PARTY is coded as (1) Strong Democrat; (2) Weak Democrat; (3) Independent-Democrat; (4) Independent-Independent; (5) Independent-Republican; (6) Weak Republican; (7) Strong Republican.

Usage

1

Format

A data frame with 1785 observations on 17 survey variables. Of these, 1311 individuals provided responses on all twelve candidate evaluations.

Source

The National Election Studies (http://www.electionstudies.org). THE 2000 NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY [dataset]. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies [producer and distributor].

Examples

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# Latent class models with one (loglinear independence) to three classes
data(election)
f <- cbind(MORALG,CARESG,KNOWG,LEADG,DISHONG,INTELG,
           MORALB,CARESB,KNOWB,LEADB,DISHONB,INTELB)~1
nes1 <- poLCA(f,election,nclass=1)  # log-likelihood: -18647.31
nes2 <- poLCA(f,election,nclass=2)  # log-likelihood: -17344.92
nes3 <- poLCA(f,election,nclass=3)  # log-likelihood: -16714.66

# Three-class model with a single covariate (party)
f2a <- cbind(MORALG,CARESG,KNOWG,LEADG,DISHONG,INTELG,
             MORALB,CARESB,KNOWB,LEADB,DISHONB,INTELB)~PARTY
nes2a <- poLCA(f2a,election,nclass=3,nrep=5)    # log-likelihood: -16222.32 
pidmat <- cbind(1,c(1:7))
exb <- exp(pidmat %*% nes2a$coeff)
matplot(c(1:7),(cbind(1,exb)/(1+rowSums(exb))),ylim=c(0,1),type="l",
    main="Party ID as a predictor of candidate affinity class",
    xlab="Party ID: strong Democratic (1) to strong Republican (7)",
    ylab="Probability of latent class membership",lwd=2,col=1)
text(5.9,0.35,"Other")
text(5.4,0.7,"Bush affinity")
text(1.8,0.6,"Gore affinity")

Example output

Loading required package: scatterplot3d
Loading required package: MASS
Conditional item response (column) probabilities,
 by outcome variable, for each class (row) 
 
$MORALG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.2578       0.4783         0.1808            0.0831

$CARESG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.1594       0.4272         0.2807            0.1327

$KNOWG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.2723       0.5622         0.1297            0.0359

$LEADG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:             0.148       0.4249         0.3143            0.1129

$DISHONG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0877       0.1869         0.3898            0.3356

$INTELG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:             0.286       0.5667         0.1098            0.0374

$MORALB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:             0.209       0.5195         0.2136             0.058

$CARESB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0999       0.3791         0.3349            0.1861

$KNOWB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.1594       0.5454         0.2174            0.0778

$LEADB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.1632       0.5072         0.2426             0.087

$DISHONB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0427         0.18         0.4218            0.3555

$INTELB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.1937       0.5545         0.1869            0.0648

Estimated class population shares 
 1 
 
Predicted class memberships (by modal posterior prob.) 
 1 
 
========================================================= 
Fit for 1 latent classes: 
========================================================= 
number of observations: 1311 
number of estimated parameters: 36 
residual degrees of freedom: 1275 
maximum log-likelihood: -18647.31 
 
AIC(1): 37366.62
BIC(1): 37553.05
G^2(1): 18882 (Likelihood ratio/deviance statistic) 
X^2(1): 29318840470 (Chi-square goodness of fit) 
 
Conditional item response (column) probabilities,
 by outcome variable, for each class (row) 
 
$MORALG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.4247       0.4944         0.0623            0.0186
class 2:            0.1172       0.4647         0.2806            0.1375

$CARESG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.2982       0.5298         0.1208            0.0512
class 2:            0.0426       0.3407         0.4154            0.2014

$KNOWG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.4354       0.5029         0.0404            0.0214
class 2:            0.1349       0.6121         0.2049            0.0481

$LEADG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.2791       0.5508         0.1417            0.0284
class 2:            0.0375       0.3188         0.4596            0.1840

$DISHONG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0350        0.068         0.3921             0.505
class 2:            0.1321        0.287         0.3879             0.193

$INTELG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.4349       0.4951         0.0454            0.0246
class 2:            0.1606       0.6271         0.1641            0.0481

$MORALB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0799       0.4465         0.3564            0.1172
class 2:            0.3177       0.5809         0.0933            0.0081

$CARESB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0138       0.1376         0.4693            0.3793
class 2:            0.1724       0.5825         0.2216            0.0234

$KNOWB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0579       0.3873         0.3849            0.1699
class 2:            0.2449       0.6786         0.0763            0.0002

$LEADB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0259       0.3339         0.4560            0.1842
class 2:            0.2789       0.6532         0.0628            0.0050

$DISHONB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0688       0.2796         0.4650            0.1865
class 2:            0.0208       0.0961         0.3854            0.4977

$INTELB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0958       0.4191         0.3433            0.1418
class 2:            0.2763       0.6686         0.0551            0.0000

Estimated class population shares 
 0.4572 0.5428 
 
Predicted class memberships (by modal posterior prob.) 
 0.4546 0.5454 
 
========================================================= 
Fit for 2 latent classes: 
========================================================= 
number of observations: 1311 
number of estimated parameters: 73 
residual degrees of freedom: 1238 
maximum log-likelihood: -17344.92 
 
AIC(2): 34835.85
BIC(2): 35213.88
G^2(2): 16277.22 (Likelihood ratio/deviance statistic) 
X^2(2): 257217146847 (Chi-square goodness of fit) 
 
Conditional item response (column) probabilities,
 by outcome variable, for each class (row) 
 
$MORALG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.1851       0.3668         0.2350            0.2131
class 2:            0.1013       0.5990         0.2552            0.0446
class 3:            0.5224       0.4109         0.0390            0.0277

$CARESG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0879       0.2546         0.3524            0.3051
class 2:            0.0227       0.5090         0.3819            0.0864
class 3:            0.3970       0.4605         0.0895            0.0529

$KNOWG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.2542       0.4253         0.2382            0.0822
class 2:            0.0429       0.8058         0.1408            0.0105
class 3:            0.5878       0.3543         0.0266            0.0312

$LEADG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0747       0.2582         0.3856            0.2816
class 2:            0.0207       0.4886         0.4268            0.0639
class 3:            0.3747       0.4772         0.1085            0.0396

$DISHONG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.2007       0.3060         0.2774            0.2158
class 2:            0.0519       0.2182         0.4998            0.2301
class 3:            0.0426       0.0487         0.3371            0.5717

$INTELG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.2936       0.4407         0.1852            0.0805
class 2:            0.0600       0.7953         0.1317            0.0130
class 3:            0.5763       0.3698         0.0197            0.0341

$MORALB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.5797       0.3787         0.0248            0.0168
class 2:            0.0642       0.7137         0.2164            0.0057
class 3:            0.0966       0.3795         0.3638            0.1601

$CARESB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.3483       0.5362         0.0836            0.0319
class 2:            0.0093       0.4847         0.4380            0.0679
class 3:            0.0162       0.1125         0.4045            0.4668

$KNOWB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.4970       0.4899         0.0132            0.0000
class 2:            0.0191       0.7583         0.2182            0.0045
class 3:            0.0682       0.3115         0.3828            0.2374

$LEADB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.5106       0.4648         0.0187            0.0058
class 2:            0.0537       0.7119         0.2217            0.0127
class 3:            0.0236       0.2735         0.4524            0.2505

$DISHONB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0365       0.0740         0.1993            0.6902
class 2:            0.0134       0.1471         0.5683            0.2711
class 3:            0.0862       0.3096         0.4111            0.1931

$INTELB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.5284       0.4656         0.0060            0.0000
class 2:            0.0435       0.7741         0.1796            0.0028
class 3:            0.1179       0.3391         0.3440            0.1990

Estimated class population shares 
 0.2608 0.4194 0.3198 
 
Predicted class memberships (by modal posterior prob.) 
 0.2578 0.4256 0.3166 
 
========================================================= 
Fit for 3 latent classes: 
========================================================= 
number of observations: 1311 
number of estimated parameters: 110 
residual degrees of freedom: 1201 
maximum log-likelihood: -16714.66 
 
AIC(3): 33649.32
BIC(3): 34218.96
G^2(3): 15016.7 (Likelihood ratio/deviance statistic) 
X^2(3): 16748687664 (Chi-square goodness of fit) 
 
Model 1: llik = -16222.32 ... best llik = -16222.32
Model 2: llik = -16222.32 ... best llik = -16222.32
Model 3: llik = -16222.32 ... best llik = -16222.32
Model 4: llik = -16222.32 ... best llik = -16222.32
Model 5: llik = -16222.32 ... best llik = -16222.32
Conditional item response (column) probabilities,
 by outcome variable, for each class (row) 
 
$MORALG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.1373       0.6682         0.1802            0.0143
class 2:            0.1081       0.3832         0.3038            0.2048
class 3:            0.6221       0.3350         0.0172            0.0258

$CARESG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0388       0.6138         0.2886            0.0589
class 2:            0.0356       0.2281         0.4501            0.2861
class 3:            0.4858       0.4164         0.0534            0.0444

$KNOWG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0712       0.8173         0.1025             0.009
class 2:            0.1436       0.5327         0.2556             0.068
class 3:            0.7189       0.2451         0.0040             0.032

$LEADG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0256       0.6280         0.3144            0.0320
class 2:            0.0278       0.1899         0.5137            0.2685
class 3:            0.4720       0.4326         0.0643            0.0311

$DISHONG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0210       0.1412         0.5341            0.3037
class 2:            0.1876       0.3435         0.3078            0.1611
class 3:            0.0518       0.0538         0.2890            0.6054

$INTELG
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0698       0.8159         0.1003            0.0140
class 2:            0.1704       0.5597         0.2000            0.0698
class 3:            0.7381       0.2219         0.0089            0.0311

$MORALB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0310       0.6326         0.3003            0.0361
class 2:            0.4477       0.5135         0.0313            0.0075
class 3:            0.1610       0.3749         0.3163            0.1478

$CARESB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0047       0.3274         0.5083            0.1597
class 2:            0.2516       0.6185         0.1097            0.0202
class 3:            0.0458       0.1490         0.3780            0.4272

$KNOWB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0121       0.6511         0.2920            0.0447
class 2:            0.3427       0.5913         0.0660            0.0000
class 3:            0.1300       0.3503         0.2989            0.2209

$LEADB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0301       0.5884         0.3294            0.0521
class 2:            0.3850       0.5803         0.0287            0.0060
class 3:            0.0743       0.3035         0.3882            0.2340

$DISHONB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0264       0.1855         0.5931            0.1950
class 2:            0.0163       0.0680         0.2923            0.6234
class 3:            0.0914       0.3117         0.3517            0.2451

$INTELB
          1 Extremely well 2 Quite well 3 Not too well 4 Not well at all
class 1:            0.0350       0.6646         0.2616            0.0388
class 2:            0.3765       0.5878         0.0357            0.0000
class 3:            0.1877       0.3637         0.2698            0.1787

Estimated class population shares 
 0.3859 0.3405 0.2736 
 
Predicted class memberships (by modal posterior prob.) 
 0.3815 0.3415 0.2769 
 
========================================================= 
Fit for 3 latent classes: 
========================================================= 
2 / 1 
            Coefficient  Std. error  t value  Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept)    -3.81813     0.31109  -12.274         0
PARTY           0.79327     0.06232   12.728         0
========================================================= 
3 / 1 
            Coefficient  Std. error  t value  Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept)     1.16155     0.17989    6.457         0
PARTY          -0.57436     0.06401   -8.973         0
========================================================= 
number of observations: 1300 
number of estimated parameters: 112 
residual degrees of freedom: 1188 
maximum log-likelihood: -16222.32 
 
AIC(3): 32668.65
BIC(3): 33247.7
X^2(3): 34565232596 (Chi-square goodness of fit) 
 

poLCA documentation built on May 29, 2017, 5:59 p.m.