# Finds many (all) roots of one equation within an interval

### Description

The function `uniroot.all`

searches the interval from lower to upper
for several roots (i.e., zero's) of a function `f`

with respect to
its first argument.

### Usage

1 2 | ```
uniroot.all(f, interval, lower = min(interval), upper = max(interval),
tol = .Machine$double.eps^0.2, maxiter = 1000, n = 100, ...)
``` |

### Arguments

`f ` |
the function for which the root is sought. |

`interval ` |
a vector containing the end-points of the interval to be searched for the root. |

`lower ` |
the lower end point of the interval to be searched. |

`upper ` |
the upper end point of the interval to be searched. |

`tol ` |
the desired accuracy (convergence tolerance). |

`maxiter ` |
the maximum number of iterations. |

`n ` |
number of subintervals in which the root is sought. |

`... ` |
additional named or unnamed arguments to be passed to |

### Details

`f`

will be called as `f(x, ...)`

for a numeric value of `x`

.

Run `demo(Jacobandroots)`

for an example of the use of `uniroot.all`

for steady-state analysis.

See also second example of `gradient`

This example is discussed in the book by Soetaert and Herman (2009).

### Value

a vector with the roots found in the interval

### Note

The function calls `uniroot`

, the basic R-function.

It is not guaranteed that all roots will be recovered.

This will depend on `n`

, the number of subintervals in which the
interval is divided.

If the function "touches" the X-axis (i.e. the root is a saddle point), then this root will generally not be retrieved. (but chances of this are pretty small).

Whereas `unitroot`

passes values one at a time to the function,
`uniroot.all`

passes a vector of values to the function.
Therefore `f`

should be written such that it can handle a vector of values.
See last example.

### Author(s)

Karline Soetaert <karline.soetaert@nioz.nl>

### See Also

`uniroot`

for more information about input.

### Examples

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 | ```
## =======================================================================
## Mathematical examples
## =======================================================================
# a well-behaved case...
fun <- function (x) cos(2*x)^3
curve(fun(x), 0, 10,main = "uniroot.all")
All <- uniroot.all(fun, c(0, 10))
points(All, y = rep(0, length(All)), pch = 16, cex = 2)
# a difficult case...
f <- function (x) 1/cos(1+x^2)
AA <- uniroot.all(f, c(-5, 5))
curve(f(x), -5, 5, n = 500, main = "uniroot.all")
points(AA, rep(0, length(AA)), col = "red", pch = 16)
f(AA) # !!!
## =======================================================================
## Ecological modelling example
## =======================================================================
# Example from the book of Soetaert and Herman(2009)
# A practical guide to ecological modelling -
# using R as a simulation platform. Springer
r <- 0.05
K <- 10
bet <- 0.1
alf <- 1
# the model : density-dependent growth and sigmoid-type mortality rate
rate <- function(x, r = 0.05) r*x*(1-x/K) - bet*x^2/(x^2+alf^2)
# find all roots within the interval [0,10]
Eq <- uniroot.all(rate, c(0, 10))
# jacobian evaluated at all roots:
# This is just one value - and therefore jacobian = eigenvalue
# the sign of eigenvalue: stability of the root: neg=stable, 0=saddle, pos=unstable
eig <- vector()
for (i in 1:length(Eq))
eig[i] <- sign (gradient(rate, Eq[i]))
curve(rate(x), ylab = "dx/dt", from = 0, to = 10,
main = "Budworm model, roots",
sub = "Example from Soetaert and Herman, 2009")
abline(h = 0)
points(x = Eq, y = rep(0, length(Eq)), pch = 21, cex = 2,
bg = c("grey", "black", "white")[eig+2] )
legend("topleft", pch = 22, pt.cex = 2,
c("stable", "saddle", "unstable"),
col = c("grey", "black", "white"),
pt.bg = c("grey", "black", "white"))
## =======================================================================
## Vectorisation:
## =======================================================================
# from R-help Digest, Vol 130, Issue 27
#https://stat.ethz.ch/pipermail/r-help/2013-December/364799.html
integrand1 <- function(x) 1/x*dnorm(x)
integrand2 <- function(x) 1/(2*x-50)*dnorm(x)
integrand3 <- function(x, C) 1/(x+C)
res <- function(C) {
integrate(integrand1, lower = 1, upper = 50)$value +
integrate(integrand2, lower = 50, upper = 100)$value -
integrate(integrand3, C = C, lower = 1, upper = 100)$value
}
# uniroot passes one value at a time to the function, so res can be used as such
uniroot(res, c(1, 1000))
# Need to vectorise the function to use uniroot.all:
res <- Vectorize(res)
uniroot.all(res, c(1,1000))
``` |

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