library(knitr) knitr::opts_chunk$set(echo = TRUE, warning = FALSE, message = FALSE, cache = FALSE, fig.width = 7, fig.height = 7, fig.show = "hold")

Start with the necessary packages and seed for the vignette.

loadedPackages <- c("geojsonsf", "ggmap", "ggplot2", "graphics", "grDevices", "sf", "sparrpowR", "spatstat.geom", "terra", "tidyterra") invisible(lapply(loadedPackages, library, character.only = TRUE)) set.seed(1234) # for reproducibility

Import data from Open Data DC website.

# Washington, D.C. boundary gis_path1 <- "https://opendata.arcgis.com/datasets/7241f6d500b44288ad983f0942b39663_10.geojson" dc <- geojsonsf::geojson_sf(gis_path1) # American Community Survey 2018 Census Tracts gis_path2 <- "https://opendata.arcgis.com/datasets/faea4d66e7134e57bf8566197f25b3a8_0.geojson" census <- geojsonsf::geojson_sf(gis_path2)

We want to create a realistic boundary (i.e., polygon) of our study area. We are going to spatially clip our DC boundary by the census tracts in an attempt to remove major bodies of water where people do not reside.

clipwin <- sf::st_union(census) dcc <- sf::st_intersection(dc, clipwin) # Plot plot(sf::st_geometry(dc), main = "DC Boundary") plot(sf::st_geometry(census), main = "American Community Survey\n2018") plot(sf::st_geometry(dcc), main = "Clipped Boundary")

Our developed method, sparrpowR, relies on the spatstat package suite to simulate data, which assumes point locations are on a planar (i.e., flat) surface. Our boundary is made up of geographical coordinates on Earth (i.e., a sphere), so we need to flatten our boundary by spatially projecting it with an appropriate spatial reference system (SRS). For the District of Columbia, we are going to use the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 18N EPSG:32619. We then convert the boundary into a `owin`

object required by the spatstat.geom package.

dcp <- sf::st_transform(sf::st_as_sf(dcc), crs = sf::st_crs(32618)) dco <- spatstat.geom::as.owin(sf::st_geometry(dcp))

In this hypothetical example, we want to estimate the local power of detecting a spatial case cluster relative to control locations. Study participants that tested positive for a disease (i.e., cases) are hypothesized to be located in a circular area around the Navy Yard, an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Site (see the success story).

navy <- data.frame(lon = 326414.70444451, lat = 4304571.1539442) spf <- sf::st_as_sf(navy, coords = c("lon", "lat"), crs = sf::st_crs(32618)) # Plot plot(sf::st_geometry(dcp), main = "Location of Hypothetical\nDisease Cluster") plot(spf, col = "magenta", add = T, pch = 4, cex = 2) graphics::legend("bottom", xpd = T, y.intersp = -1.5, legend = c("Navy Yard"), col = "magenta", pch = 4, cex = 1, bty = "n")

We will assume that approximately 50 cases (e.g., `n_case = 50`

) were clustered around the center of the Navy Yard (e.g., `samp_case = "MVN"`

) with more cases near the center and fewer cases about 1 kilometers away (e.g., `s_case = 1000`

).

If we were to conduct a study, where would we be sufficiently statistically powered to detect this spatial case cluster? To answer this question we will randomly sample approximately 950 participants (e.g., `n_conrol = 950`

or 5% disease prevalence) around the Navy Yard (e.g., `samp_control = "MVN"`

) sampling more participants near the center and fewer participants about 2 kilometers away (e.g., `s_control = 2000`

). These participants would test negative for a disease (i.e., controls) were we to conduct a study. We can then resample control locations iteratively, as if we conducted the same study multiple times (e.g., `sim_total = 100`

). We can conclude that we are sufficiently powered to detect a spatial clustering in areas where a statistically significant spatial case cluster was located in at least 80% (e.g., `p_thresh = 0.8`

) of these theoretical studies. The `spatial_power()`

function calculates both a one-tailed, lower tailed hypothesis (i.e., case clustering only) and a two-tailed hypothesis (i.e., case and control clustering). Use the `cascon`

argument in the `spatial_plots()`

function to plot either test.

start_time <- Sys.time() # record start time sim_power <- sparrpowR::spatial_power(x_case = navy[[1]], y_case = navy[[2]], # center of cluster x_control = navy[[1]], y_control = navy[[2]], # center of cluster n_case = 50, n_control = 950, # sample size of case/control samp_case = "MVN", samp_control = "MVN", # samplers s_case = 1000, s_control = 2000, # approximate size of clusters alpha = 0.05, # critical p-value sim_total = 100, # number of iterations win = dco, # study area resolution = 100, # number gridded knots on x-axis edge = "diggle", # correct for edge effects adapt = FALSE, # fixed-bandwidth h0 = NULL, # automatically select bandwidth for each iteration verbose = FALSE) # no printout end_time <- Sys.time() # record end time time_srr <- end_time - start_time # Calculate run time

The process above took about `r round(time_srr, digits = 1)`

minutes to run. Of the `r length(sim_power$n_con)`

iterations, we simulated `r mean(sim_power$n_cas)`

case locations and an average `r round(mean(sim_power$n_con))`

(SD: `r round(sd(sim_power$n_con), digits = 2)`

) control locations for an average prevalence of `r round(mean(sim_power$n_cas/sim_power$n_con)*100, digits = 2)`

% (SD: `r round(sd(sim_power$n_cas/sim_power$n_con)*100, digits = 2)`

%). The average bandwidth for the statistic was `r round(mean(sim_power$bandw)/1000, digits = 1)`

kilometers (SD: `r round(sd(sim_power$bandw)/1000, digits = 2)`

). Fewer case locations and controls locations were simulated than specified in the inputs due to being placed outside of our study window (i.e., Maryland, Virginia, or in the water features around the District of Columbia). Users can modify their inputs to achieve the correct number of cases and controls in their output.

We plot the statistical power for a one-tailed, lower-tail hypothesis (`cascon = FALSE`

) at `alpha = 0.05`

using the `spatial_plots()`

function.

cols <- c("deepskyblue", "springgreen", "red", "navyblue") # colors for plots chars <- c(4,5) # symbols for point-locations sizes <- c(0.5,0.5) # size of point-locations p_thresh <- 0.8 # 80% of iterations with statistically significant results ## Data Visualization of Input and Power sparrpowR::spatial_plots(input = sim_power, # use output of above simulation p_thresh = p_thresh, # power cut-off cascon = FALSE, # one-tail, lower tail hypothesis test (i.e., case clustering) plot_pts = TRUE, # display the points in the second plot chars = chars, # case, control sizes = sizes, # case, control cols = cols) # colors of plot

Now, lets overlay our results on top of a basemap. Here, we will use an open-source map from Stamen, that is unprojected in WGS84. We extract the rectangular box (i.e., bounding box) surrounding our polygon boundary of the District of Columbia (WGS84).

dcbb <- sf::st_bbox(sf::st_buffer(sf::st_as_sf(dc), dist = 0.015)) dcbbm <- matrix(dcbb, nrow = 2) base_map <- ggmap::get_map(location = dcbbm, maptype = "terrain", source = "stamen")

Prepare the points from the first simulation for plotting in ggplot2 suite and prepare the original boundary for plotting in ggplot2 suite.

sim_pts <- sim_power$sim # extract points from first iteration sim_pts <- sf::st_as_sf(sim_pts) # convert to simple features names(sim_pts)[1] <- "mark" sf::st_crs(sim_pts) <- sf::st_crs(32618) sim_pts_wgs84 <- sf::st_transform(sim_pts, crs = sf::st_crs(4326)) # project to basemap

Prepare the SpatRaster from the simulation for plotting in ggplot2 suite.

pvalprop <- data.frame(x = sim_power$rx, y = sim_power$ry, z = sim_power$pval_prop_cas) # extract proportion significant lrr_narm <- na.omit(pvalprop) # remove NAs pvalprop_raster <- terra::rast(lrr_narm) # convert to SpatRaster rm(pvalprop, lrr_narm) # conserve memory terra::crs(pvalprop_raster) <- terra::crs(dcp) # set output project (UTM 18N) pvalprop_raster <- terra::project(pvalprop_raster, dc) # unproject (WGS84) rampcols <- grDevices::colorRampPalette(colors = c(cols[1], cols[2]), space="Lab")(length(terra::values(pvalprop_raster))) # set colorramp

Plot local power as a continuous outcome with point-locations using the ggplot2 suite.

ggmap::ggmap(base_map) + # basemap ggplot2::geom_sf(data = dcc, # original boundary, fill = "transparent", colour = "black", inherit.aes = FALSE) + tidyterra::geom_spatraster(data = pvalprop_raster, # output SpatRaster size = 0, alpha = 0.5) + ggplot2::scale_fill_gradientn(colours = rampcols, na.value = NA) + # colors for SpatRaster ggplot2::geom_sf(data = sim_pts_wgs84[-1, ], # simulated point-locations ggplot2::aes(color = mark, shape = mark), alpha = 0.8, inherit.aes = FALSE) + ggplot2::scale_color_manual(values = cols[3:4]) + # fill of point-locations ggplot2::scale_shape_manual(values = chars) + # shape of point-locations ggplot2::labs(x = "", y = "", fill = "Power", color = "", shape = "") # legend labels

Plot local power as a categorical outcome with point-locations using the ggplot2 suite.

pvalprop_reclass <- pvalprop_raster terra::values(pvalprop_reclass) <- cut(terra::values(pvalprop_raster), c(-Inf, p_thresh, Inf)) ggmap::ggmap(base_map) + # basemap ggplot2::geom_sf(data = dcc, # original boundary, fill = "transparent", colour = "black", inherit.aes = FALSE) + tidyterra::geom_spatraster(data = pvalprop_reclass, # output SpatRaster size = 0, alpha = 0.5) + ggplot2::scale_fill_manual(values = cols[c(1,2)], labels = c("insufficient", "sufficient"), na.translate = FALSE, na.value = NA) + # colors for SpatRaster ggplot2::labs(x = "", y = "", fill = "Power") # legend labels

Based on `r length(sim_power$n_con)`

iterations of multivariate normal sampling of approximately `r round(mean(sim_power$n_con))`

control participants focused around the Navy Yard, we are sufficiently powered to detect the disease cluster in the Navy Yard area.

We provide functionality to run the `spatial_power()`

with parallel processing to speed up computation (`parallel = TRUE`

). Parallelization is accomplished with the doFuture package, the future::multisession plan, and the %dorng% operator for the foreach package to produce reproducible results. (Note: simpler windows, such as unit circles, require substantially less computational resources.)

We also provide functionality to correct for multiple testing. A hypothesis is tested at each gridded knot and the tests are spatially correlated by nature. With the `p_correct`

argument you can choose a multiple testing correction. The most conservative, `p_correct = "Bonferroni"`

and `p_correct = "Sidak"`

, apply corrections that assumes independent tests, which are likely not appropriate for this setting but we include to allow for sensitivity tests. The `p_correct = "FDR"`

applies a False Discovery Rate for the critical p-value that is not as conservative as the other two options.

Here, we use the same example as above, conducted in parallel with a False Discovery Rate procedure.

set.seed(1234) # reset RNG for reproducibility with previous run start_time <- Sys.time() # record start time sim_power <- sparrpowR::spatial_power(x_case = navy[[1]], y_case = navy[[2]], # center of cluster x_control = navy[[1]], y_control = navy[[2]], # center of cluster n_case = 50, n_control = 950, # sample size of case/control samp_case = "MVN", samp_control = "MVN", # samplers s_case = 1000, s_control = 2000, # approximate size of clusters alpha = 0.05, # critical p-value sim_total = 100, # number of iterations win = dco, # study area resolution = 100, # number gridded knots on x-axis edge = "diggle", # correct for edge effects adapt = FALSE, # fixed-bandwidth h0 = NULL, # automatically select bandwidth for each iteration verbose = FALSE, # no printout parallel = TRUE, # Run in parallel n_core = 5, # Use 5 cores (depends on your system, default = 2) p_correct = "FDR") # use a correction for multiple testing (False Discovery Rate) end_time <- Sys.time() # record end time time_srr <- end_time - start_time # Calculate run time cols <- c("deepskyblue", "springgreen", "red", "navyblue") # colors for plots chars <- c(4,5) # symbols for point-locations sizes <- c(0.5,0.5) # size of point-locations p_thresh <- 0.8 # 80% of iterations with statistically significant results ## Data Visualization of Input and Power sparrpowR::spatial_plots(input = sim_power, # use output of above simulation p_thresh = p_thresh, # power cut-off cascon = FALSE, # one-tail, lower tail hypothesis test (i.e., case clustering) plot_pts = FALSE, # display the points in the second plot chars = chars, # case, control sizes = sizes, # case, control cols = cols) # colors of plot

The process above took about `r round(time_srr, digits = 1)`

minutes to run, which is shorter than the first example. The zone with sufficient power to detect a case cluster is slightly smaller than the first example, too, due to the multiple testing correction.

```
sessionInfo()
```

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