statcheck-package: statcheck: Extract statistics from articles and recompute...

statcheck-packageR Documentation

statcheck: Extract statistics from articles and recompute p-values


The package statcheck can extract Null Hypothesis Significance Test (NHST) results from articles (or plain text) and recomputes p-values to check whether a reported NHST result is internally consistent or not.


statcheck can be used for multiple purposes, including:

  • Self-checks: you can use statcheck to make sure your manuscript doesn't contain copy-paste errors or other inconsistencies before you submit it to a journal.

  • Peer review: editors and reviewers can use statcheck to check submitted manuscripts for statistical inconsistencies. They can ask authors for a correction or clarification before publishing a manuscript.

  • Research: statcheck can be used to automatically extract statistical test results from articles that can then be analyzed. You can for instance investigate whether you can predict statistical inconsistencies (see e.g., Nuijten et al., 2017 <doi:10.1525/collabra.102>), or use it to analyze p-value distributions (see e.g., Hartgerink et al., 2016 <doi:10.7717/peerj.1935>).

Using statcheck on a string of text

The most basic usage of statcheck is to directly extract NHST results and check for inconsistencies in a string of text. See statcheck for details and an example of how to do this.

Using statcheck on an article

Another option is to run statcheck on an article (PDF or HTML). This is a useful option if you want to check for inconsistencies in a single article (e.g., as a final check before you submit it). Depending on whether you want to check an article in HTML or PDF, you can use checkHTML or checkPDF, respectively. Note: it is recommended to check articles in HTML, as converting PDF files to plain text sometimes results in some conversion errors.

Using statcheck on a folder of articles

Finally, it is possible to run statcheck on an entire folder of articles. This is often useful for meta-research. To do so, you can use checkPDFdir to check all PDF articles in a folder, checkHTMLdir to check all PDF articles in a folder, and checkdir to check both PDF and HTML articles in a folder.

Accuracy of the algorithm in detecting inconsistencies

It is important to note that statcheck is not perfect. Its performance in detecting NHST results depends on the type-setting and reporting style of an article and can vary widely. However, statcheck performs well in classifying the retrieved statistics in different consistency categories. We found that statcheck’s sensitivity (true positive rate) and specificity (true negative rate) were high: between 85.3 respectively, depending on the assumptions and settings. The overall accuracy of statcheck ranged from 96.2 can be found in Nuijten et al., 2017.


Details on what statcheck can and cannot do, and how to install the package and the necessary program Xpdf can be found in the online manual.

Web app

statcheck is also available as a free, online web app at


Maintainer: Michele B. Nuijten (ORCID)


Other contributors:

  • Willem Sleegers (ORCID) [contributor]

  • Sean Rife (ORCID) [contributor]

  • John Sakaluk (ORCID) [contributor]

  • Paul van der Laken (ORCID) [contributor]

  • Chris Hartgerink (ORCID) [contributor]

  • Steve Haroz (ORCID) [contributor]


Hartgerink, C. H. J., Van Aert, R. C. M., Nuijten, M. B., Wicherts, J. M., Van Assen, M. A. L. M. (2016). Distributions of p-values smaller than .05 in psychology: What is going on? PeerJ, 4, e1935. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1935

Nuijten, M. B., Borghuis, J., Veldkamp, C. L. S., Dominguez-Alvarez, L., Van Assen, M. A. L. M., & Wicherts, J. M. (2017). Journal data sharing policies and statistical reporting inconsistencies in psychology. Collabra: Psychology, 3(1), 1-22. doi: 10.1525/collabra.102.

Nuijten, M. B., Van Assen, M. A. L. M., Hartgerink, C. H. J., Epskamp, S., & Wicherts, J. M. (2017). The validity of the tool "statcheck" in discovering statistical reporting inconsistencies. Preprint retrieved from

statcheck documentation built on Jan. 23, 2023, 5:30 p.m.