Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples

Function to obtain win and loss measures at individual level from the observed sociomatrix.

1 |

`X` |
Empirical sociomatrix containing wins-losses frequencies in dyadic encounters. The matrix must be square and numeric. |

`names` |
Character vector with the names of individuals. This vector is NULL by default |

`method` |
A character string indicating which dyadic dominance measure is to be used for the computation of David's scores. One of "Dij" or "Pij", can be abbreviated. |

By means of the empirical sociomatrix of wins and losses this function computes several win-loss measures at individual level. Specifically, it computes *w*, *weighted.w*, *l* and *weighted.l*. *w* is the sum of individuals' dyadic dominances Dij or the sum of proportions of wins Pij by rows, depending on the specification of the *method*. *weighted.w* measures is the sum of individuals' Dij or Pij values weighted by the *w* values of their interactants. *l* is the sum of individuals' dyadic dominance indices Dij or the sum of individuals' proportions of wins Pij by columns. And finally, *weighted.l* is the columns sum of individuals' Dij or Pij values weighted by the *l* values of their interactants. These measures are used when computing David's scores.

The result is a data frame with the following components:

`w` |
Sum of dyadic dominance indices Dij or proportions of wins Pij by rows. |

`weighted.w` |
Weighted sum of dyadic dominance indices Dij or proportions of wins Pij. |

`l` |
Sum of dyadic dominance indices Dij or proportions of wins Pij by columns. |

`weighted.l` |
Weighted sum of dyadic dominance indices Dij or proportions of wins Pij. |

David Leiva dleivaur@ub.edu & Han de Vries J.deVries1@uu.nl.

David, H. A. (1988). *The Method of Paired Comparisons*. London: C. Griffin.

de Vries, H., Stevens, J. M. G., & Vervaecke, H. (2006). Measuring and testing the steepness of dominance hierarchies. *Animal Behaviour*, *71*, 585-592.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 | ```
##############################################################################
### Example taken from Vervaecke et al. (2007): ###
##############################################################################
X <- matrix(c(0,58,50,61,32,37,29,39,25,8,0,22,22,9,27,20,10,48,
3,3,0,19,29,12,13,19,8,5,8,9,0,33,38,35,32,57,
4,7,9,1,0,28,26,16,23,4,3,0,0,6,0,7,6,12,
2,0,4,1,4,4,0,5,3,0,2,1,1,5,8,3,0,10,3,1,3,0,0,4,1,2,0),
nrow=9,byrow=TRUE)
individuals <- c("V","VS","B","FJ","PR","VB","TOR","MU","ZV")
res <- getwl(X,names=individuals,method="Dij")
print(res,digits=3)
``` |

Embedding an R snippet on your website

Add the following code to your website.

For more information on customizing the embed code, read Embedding Snippets.