time_round | R Documentation |

timechange provides rounding to the nearest unit or multiple of a unit with fractional support whenever makes sense. Units can be specified flexibly as strings. All common abbreviations are supported - secs, min, mins, 2 minutes, 3 years, 2s, 1d etc.

```
time_round(
time,
unit = "second",
week_start = getOption("timechange.week_start", 1),
origin = unix_origin
)
time_floor(
time,
unit = "seconds",
week_start = getOption("timechange.week_start", 1),
origin = unix_origin
)
time_ceiling(
time,
unit = "seconds",
change_on_boundary = inherits(time, "Date"),
week_start = getOption("timechange.week_start", 1),
origin = unix_origin
)
```

`time` |
a date-time vector ( |

`unit` |
a character string specifying a time unit or a multiple of a unit. Valid
base periods for civil time rounding are Rounding for a unit is performed from the parent's unit origin. For example when rounding to seconds origin is start of the minute. When rounding to days, origin is first date of the month. See examples. With fractional sub-unit (unit < 1) rounding with child unit is performed instead. For example 0.5mins == 30secs, .2hours == 12min etc. Please note that for fractions which don't match exactly to integer number of the child units only the integer part is used for computation. For example .7days = 16.8hours will use 16 hours during the computation. |

`week_start` |
When unit is |

`origin` |
Origin with respect to which to perform the rounding operation. For
absolute units only. Can be a vector of the same length as the input |

`change_on_boundary` |
If NULL (the default) don't change instants on the boundary
( |

An object of the same class as the input object. When input is a `Date`

object and unit is smaller than `day`

a `POSIXct`

object is returned.

Rounding in civil time is done on actual clock time (ymdHMS) and is affected by civil time irregularities like DST. One important characteristic of civil time rounding is that floor (ceiling) does not produce civil times that are bigger (smaller) than the original civil time.

Absolute time rounding (with `aseconds`

, `aminutes`

and `ahours`

) is done on the
absolute time (number of seconds since origin), thus, allowing for fractional seconds
and arbitrary multi-units. See examples of rounding around DST transition where
rounding in civil time does not give the same result as rounding with the
corresponding absolute units. Also note that `round.POSIXt()`

rounds on absolute
time.

Please note that absolute rounding to fractions smaller than 1ms will result in large precision errors due to the floating point representation of the POSIXct objects.

`time_round()`

For rounding date-times which is exactly halfway between two consecutive units,
the convention is to round up. Note that this is in line with the behavior of R's
`base::round.POSIXt()`

function but does not follow the convention of the base
`base::round()`

function which "rounds to the even digit" per IEC 60559.

`Date`

objectsBy default rounding up `Date`

objects follows 3 steps:

Convert to an instant representing lower bound of the Date:

`2000-01-01`

–>`2000-01-01 00:00:00`

Round up to the

**next**closest rounding unit boundary. For example, if the rounding unit is`month`

then next closest boundary of`2000-01-01`

is`2000-02-01 00:00:00`

.The motivation for this is that the "partial"

`2000-01-01`

is conceptually an interval (`2000-01-01 00:00:00`

–`2000-01-02 00:00:00`

) and the day hasn't started clocking yet at the exact boundary`00:00:00`

. Thus, it seems wrong to round up a day to its lower boundary.The behavior on the boundary can be changed by setting

`change_on_boundary`

to a non-`NULL`

value.If rounding unit is smaller than a day, return the instant from step 2 (

`POSIXct`

), otherwise convert to and return a`Date`

object.

`base::round()`

```
## print fractional seconds
options(digits.secs=6)
x <- as.POSIXct("2009-08-03 12:01:59.23")
time_round(x, ".5 asec")
time_round(x, "sec")
time_round(x, "second")
time_round(x, "asecond")
time_round(x, "minute")
time_round(x, "5 mins")
time_round(x, "5M") # "M" for minute "m" for month
time_round(x, "hour")
time_round(x, "2 hours")
time_round(x, "2H")
time_round(x, "day")
time_round(x, "week")
time_round(x, "month")
time_round(x, "bimonth")
time_round(x, "quarter") == time_round(x, "3 months")
time_round(x, "halfyear")
time_round(x, "year")
x <- as.POSIXct("2009-08-03 12:01:59.23")
time_floor(x, ".1 asec")
time_floor(x, "second")
time_floor(x, "minute")
time_floor(x, "M")
time_floor(x, "hour")
time_floor(x, ".2 ahour")
time_floor(x, "day")
time_floor(x, "week")
time_floor(x, "m")
time_floor(x, "month")
time_floor(x, "bimonth")
time_floor(x, "quarter")
time_floor(x, "season")
time_floor(x, "halfyear")
time_floor(x, "year")
x <- as.POSIXct("2009-08-03 12:01:59.23")
time_ceiling(x, ".1 asec")
time_ceiling(x, "second")
time_ceiling(x, "minute")
time_ceiling(x, "5 mins")
time_ceiling(x, "hour")
time_ceiling(x, ".2 ahour")
time_ceiling(x, "day")
time_ceiling(x, "week")
time_ceiling(x, "month")
time_ceiling(x, "bimonth") == time_ceiling(x, "2 months")
time_ceiling(x, "quarter")
time_ceiling(x, "season")
time_ceiling(x, "halfyear")
time_ceiling(x, "year")
## behavior on the boundary
x <- as.Date("2000-01-01")
time_ceiling(x, "month")
time_ceiling(x, "month", change_on_boundary = FALSE)
## As of R 3.4.2 POSIXct printing of fractional seconds is wrong
as.POSIXct("2009-08-03 12:01:59.3", tz = "UTC") ## -> "2009-08-03 12:01:59.2 UTC"
time_ceiling(x, ".1 asec") ## -> "2009-08-03 12:01:59.2 UTC"
## Civil Time vs Absolute Time Rounding
# "2014-11-02 01:59:59.5 EDT" before 1h backroll at 2AM
x <- .POSIXct(1414907999.5, tz = "America/New_York")
x
time_ceiling(x, "hour") # "2014-11-02 02:00:00 EST"
time_ceiling(x, "ahour") # "2014-11-02 01:00:00 EST"
time_ceiling(x, "minute")
time_ceiling(x, "aminute")
time_ceiling(x, "sec")
time_ceiling(x, "asec")
time_round(x, "hour") # "2014-11-02 01:00:00 EDT" !!
time_round(x, "ahour") # "2014-11-02 01:00:00 EST"
round.POSIXt(x, "hour") # "2014-11-02 01:00:00 EST"
# "2014-11-02 01:00:00.5 EST" .5s after 1h backroll at 2AM
x <- .POSIXct(1414908000.5, tz = "America/New_York")
x
time_floor(x, "hour") # "2014-11-02 01:00:00 EST"
time_floor(x, "ahour") # "2014-11-02 01:00:00 EST"
## Behavior on the boundary when rounding multi-units
x <- as.POSIXct("2009-08-28 22:56:59.23", tz = "UTC")
time_ceiling(x, "3.4 secs") # "2009-08-28 22:57:03.4"
time_ceiling(x, "50.5 secs") # "2009-08-28 22:57:50.5"
time_ceiling(x, "57 min") # "2009-08-28 22:57:00"
time_ceiling(x, "56 min") # "2009-08-28 23:56:00"
time_ceiling(x, "7h") # "2009-08-29 07:00:00"
time_ceiling(x, "7d") # "2009-08-29 00:00:00"
time_ceiling(x, "8d") # "2009-09-09 00:00:00"
time_ceiling(x, "8m") # "2009-09-01 00:00:00"
time_ceiling(x, "6m") # "2010-01-01 00:00:00"
time_ceiling(x, "7m") # "2010-08-01 00:00:00"
x <- as.POSIXct("2010-11-25 22:56:57", tz = "UTC")
time_ceiling(x, "6sec") # "2010-11-25 22:57:00"
time_ceiling(x, "60sec") # "2010-11-25 22:57:00"
time_ceiling(x, "6min") # "2010-11-25 23:00:00"
time_ceiling(x, "60min") # "2010-11-25 23:00:00"
time_ceiling(x, "4h") # "2010-11-26 00:00:00"
time_ceiling(x, "15d") # "2010-12-01 00:00:00"
time_ceiling(x, "15d") # "2010-12-01 00:00:00"
time_ceiling(x, "6m") # "2011-01-01 00:00:00"
## custom origin
x <- as.POSIXct(c("2010-10-01 01:00:01", "2010-11-02 02:00:01"), tz = "America/New_York")
# 50 minutes from the day or month start
time_floor(x, "50amin")
time_floor(x, "50amin", origin = time_floor(x, "day"))
time_floor(x, "50amin", origin = time_floor(x, "month"))
time_ceiling(x, "50amin")
time_ceiling(x, "50amin", origin = time_floor(x, "day"))
time_ceiling(x, "50amin", origin = time_floor(x, "month"))
```

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