time_round: Round, floor and ceiling for date-time objects

Description Usage Arguments Value Civil Time vs Absolute Time rounding Ceiling of Date objects See Also Examples

View source: R/round.R

Description

timechange provides rounding to the nearest unit or multiple of a unit. Units can be specified flexibly as strings; all common abbreviations are supported - secs, min, mins, 2 minutes, 3 years, 2s, 1d etc.

time_round() takes a date-time object and rounds it to the nearest value of the specified time unit. For rounding date-times which is exactly halfway between two consecutive units, the convention is to round up. Note that this is in line with the behavior of R's base::round.POSIXt() function but does not follow the convention of the base base::round() function which "rounds to the even digit" per IEC 60559.

time_floor takes a date-time object and rounds it down to the nearest boundary of the specified time unit.

time_ceiling() takes a date-time object and rounds it up to the nearest boundary of the specified time unit.

Usage

1
2
3
4
5
6
time_round(time, unit = "second", week_start = getOption("week_start", 1))

time_floor(time, unit = "seconds", week_start = getOption("week_start", 1))

time_ceiling(time, unit = "seconds", change_on_boundary = inherits(time,
  "Date"), week_start = getOption("week_start", 1))

Arguments

time

a date-time vector (Date, POSIXct or POSIXlt)

unit

a character string specifying a time unit or a multiple of a unit. Valid base periods for civil time rounding are second, minute, hour, day, week, month, bimonth, quarter, season, halfyear and year. The only unit for absolute time rounding is asecond. Other absolute units can be achieved with multiples of asecond ("60a", "3600a" etc). See "Details" and examples. Arbitrary unique English abbreviations are allowed. With one letter abbreviations are supported, including the strptime formats "y", "m", "d", "M", "H", "S". Multi-unit rounding of weeks is currently not supported.

week_start

when unit is weeks specify the reference day. Defaults to 1 (Monday).

change_on_boundary

If NULL (the default) don't change instants on the boundary (time_ceiling(ymd_hms('2000-01-01 00:00:00')) is 2000-01-01 00:00:00), but round up Date objects to the next boundary (time_ceiling(ymd("2000-01-01"), "month") is "2000-02-01"). When TRUE, instants on the boundary are rounded up to the next boundary. When FALSE, date-time on the boundary are never rounded up (this was the default for lubridate prior to v1.6.0. See section Rounding Up Date Objects below for more details.

Value

An object of the same class as the input object. When input is a Date object and unit is smaller than day a POSIXct object is returned.

Civil Time vs Absolute Time rounding

Rounding in civil time is done on actual clock time (ymdHMS) and is affected by civil time irregularities like DST. One important characteristic of civil time rounding is that floor (ceiling) does not produce civil times that are bigger (smaller) than the rounded civil time.

Absolute time rounding (with aseconds) is done on the absolute time (number of seconds since origin), Thus, rounding of aseconds allows for fractional seconds and multi-units larger than 60. See examples of rounding around DST transition where rounding in civil time does not give same result as rounding with the corresponding X aseconds.

Please note that absolute rounding to fractions smaller than 1ms will result to large precision errors due to the floating point representation of the POSIXct objects.

Ceiling of Date objects

By default rounding up Date objects follows 3 steps:

  1. Convert to an instant representing lower bound of the Date: 2000-01-01 –> 2000-01-01 00:00:00

  2. Round up to the next closest rounding unit boundary. For example, if the rounding unit is month then next closest boundary of 2000-01-01 is 2000-02-01 00:00:00.

    The motivation for this is that the "partial" 2000-01-01 is conceptually an interval (2000-01-01 00:00:002000-01-02 00:00:00) and the day hasn't started clocking yet at the exact boundary 00:00:00. Thus, it seems wrong to round up a day to its lower boundary.

    The behavior on the boundary can be changed by setting change_on_boundary to a non-NULL value.

  3. If rounding unit is smaller than a day, return the instant from step 2 (POSIXct), otherwise convert to and return a Date object.

See Also

base::round()

Examples

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
## print fractional seconds
options(digits.secs=6)

x <- as.POSIXct("2009-08-03 12:01:59.23")
time_round(x, ".5 asec")
time_round(x, "sec")
time_round(x, "second")
time_round(x, "asecond")
time_round(x, "minute")
time_round(x, "5 mins")
time_round(x, "5M") # "M" for minute "m" for month
time_round(x, "hour")
time_round(x, "2 hours")
time_round(x, "2H")
time_round(x, "day")
time_round(x, "week")
time_round(x, "month")
time_round(x, "bimonth")
time_round(x, "quarter") == time_round(x, "3 months")
time_round(x, "halfyear")
time_round(x, "year")

x <- as.POSIXct("2009-08-03 12:01:59.23")
time_floor(x, ".1 asec")
time_floor(x, "second")
time_floor(x, "minute")
time_floor(x, "M")
time_floor(x, "hour")
time_floor(x, "day")
time_floor(x, "week")
time_floor(x, "m")
time_floor(x, "month")
time_floor(x, "bimonth")
time_floor(x, "quarter")
time_floor(x, "season")
time_floor(x, "halfyear")
time_floor(x, "year")

x <- as.POSIXct("2009-08-03 12:01:59.23")
time_ceiling(x, ".1 asec")
time_ceiling(x, "second")
time_ceiling(x, "minute")
time_ceiling(x, "5 mins")
time_ceiling(x, "hour")
time_ceiling(x, "day")
time_ceiling(x, "week")
time_ceiling(x, "month")
time_ceiling(x, "bimonth") == time_ceiling(x, "2 months")
time_ceiling(x, "quarter")
time_ceiling(x, "season")
time_ceiling(x, "halfyear")
time_ceiling(x, "year")

## behavior on the boundary
x <- as.Date("2000-01-01")
time_ceiling(x, "month")
time_ceiling(x, "month", change_on_boundary = FALSE)

## As of R 3.4.2 POSIXct printing of fractional numbers is wrong
as.POSIXct("2009-08-03 12:01:59.3", tz = "UTC") ## -> "2009-08-03 12:01:59.2 UTC"
time_ceiling(x, ".1 asec") ## -> "2009-08-03 12:01:59.2 UTC"

## Civil Time vs Absolute Time Rounding

# "2014-11-02 01:59:59.5 EDT" before 1h backroll at 2AM
x <- .POSIXct(1414907999.5, tz = "America/New_York")
x
time_ceiling(x, "hour") # "2014-11-02 02:00:00 EST"
time_ceiling(x, "minute")
time_ceiling(x, "sec")
difftime(time_ceiling(x, "s"), x)
time_ceiling(x, "1a") # "2014-11-02 01:00:00 EST"
difftime(time_ceiling(x, "a"), x)

# "2014-11-02 01:00:00.5 EST" after 1h backroll at 2AM
x <- .POSIXct(1414908000.5, tz = "America/New_York")
x
time_floor(x, "hour") # "2014-11-02 01:00:00 EST"
difftime(time_floor(x, "hour"), x)
time_floor(x, "3600a") # "2014-11-02 01:00:00 EST"  - 25m
difftime(time_floor(x, "a"), x)

timechange documentation built on April 26, 2018, 5:04 p.m.