Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References Examples

Compute sample (empirical) variogram from spatial data. The function returns a binned variogram and a variogram cloud.

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`x` |
a spatial object ( |

`width` |
the lag size (width of subsequent distance intervals) into which cell pairs are grouped for semivariance estimates. If missing, the cell size (raster resolution) is assigned. |

`cutoff` |
spatial separation distance up to which cell pairs are included in semivariance estimates; as a default, the length of the diagonal of the box spanning the data is divided by three. |

`...` |
Additional arguments including |

Variogram is a graph to explore spatial structure in a single variable. A variogram summarizes the spatial relations in the data, and can be used to understand within what range (distance) the data is spatially autocorrelated.

`Variogram` |
an object containing variogram cloud and the variogram within each distance interval |

Babak Naimi naimi.b@gmail.com

Naimi, B., Hamm, N. A., Groen, T. A., Skidmore, A. K., Toxopeus, A. G., & Alibakhshi, S. (2019). ELSA: Entropy-based local indicator of spatial association. Spatial statistics, 29, 66-88.

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