Description Usage Arguments Details Value References See Also Examples

This function simulates the evolution of individual-based populations forward in time.

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`x` |
List of objects of class |

`time` |
Number of simulated generations. |

`type` |
Type of simulated evolution. Current options are 'constant', 'dynamic', 'additive', and 'custom' (see Details). |

`recombination` |
Type of recombination between homologous chromosomes. Current options are 'map' and 'average' (see Details). |

`recom.rate` |
A numerical value for the recombination type 'average', or a vector of |

`loci.pos` |
A vector with the position of loci. The default value is NULL, but it is required for the recombination type 'average'. |

`chromo_mb` |
A numerical value with the size of the simulated chromosome (in megabase). The default value is NULL, but it is required for the recombination type 'average'. |

`init.sex` |
A list of vectors defining the sex of the initial individuals in the populations (1: females and 2: males). The default value is NULL and assigns the sex of the first generation randomly. |

`migration.rate` |
A single value setting the migration rate between all populations, or a squared matrix of order equal to the number of populations, with the migration rate between them (migration['from', 'to']). It is ignored for single population simulations. The default value is NULL with no migration between populations. |

`mutation.rate` |
A numerical value setting the mutation rate per site. It is currently restricted to biallelic SNPs (genetic structures with values 1 or 2). The default value is NULL. |

`param.z` |
A list with the parameter values for the function computing phenotypes. The list of parameters for each population should be included as a list of list (see Example) |

`param.w` |
A list with the parameter values for the fitness function. The list of parameters for each population should be included as a list of list (see Example) |

`fun` |
A character vector with the names of the custom phenotype and fitness functions. The default value is NULL, but it is required for the 'custom' type of evolution |

This function returns a list of populations composed of two-dimensional arrays that represents a pair of homologous chromosomes. Rows represent individuals and columns the different loci. Each element of the array is an integer defining the copy of a given allele at a given locus.

Different types of evolution are available for simulations:

'constant' a constant population size over time. There is no selection, equal sex ratio and each breeding pair generates two offspring. This case represent neutral evolution in which variation are due to recombination, mutation and migration. Variations in the population sizes are also possible due to the effect of migration.

'dynamic' a dynamic population size over time. This type of evolution introduces to type 'constant' an unequal sex ratio, a variable number of offspring and a density-dependent demographic effect to avoid exponential growth. A list with the parameters for the phenotype function (param.z=list(sex.ratio)) and for the fitness function (param.w=list(mean.fitness, d.d)) are required:

sex.ratio: a numerical value defining the sex ratio of populations. This value should be included within a list in 'param.z'.

mean.fitness: an integer with the mean number of offsprings generated by breeding pair. This value should be included within a list in 'param.w'.

d.d: numerical value introducing the density-dependent demographic effect to avoid exponential growth. This value should be included within a list in 'param.w'.

The sex of individuals (1: females and 2: males) are generated by a binomial distribution with probability of being a male equal to the 'sex.ratio' The fitness of individuals (in number of offspring) are obtained from:

*Poisson(λ) - N*d.d*, in which*λ*is equal to 'mean.fitness' and*N*represents the population size.

'additive' additive phenotype evolution. This function introduce quantitative phenotypes and convergent or divergent selection as implemented in Quilodrán et al. (2019). A list with the parameters for the phenotype function (param.z=list(sex.ratio, fitness.pos, bvs, add.loci, e.v)) and for the fitness function (param.w=list(b0,b1,b2,b3, d.v, add.loci)) are required.

The following parameters are needed for the computation of phenotypes (

*z*):sex.ratio: A numerical value defining the sex ratio of populations. This value should be included within a list in 'param.z'.

fitness.pos: A vector with the position of the additive loci participating in the computation of phenotypes. This value should be included within a list in 'param.z'.

bvs: A matrix with the breeding values of alleles on each loci. The number of rows is equal to the number of additive loci, while the number of columns is equal to the maximum number of alleles in a locus. This object should be included within a list in 'param.z'.

add.loci: An integer with the total number of additive loci participating in the computation of phenotypes. This object should be included within a list in 'param.z'.

e.v: A numerical value defining a stochastic environmental variant in the computation of phenotypes. This value should be included within a list in 'param.z'.

The default phenotype function (

*z*) focus on an additive genetic genotype-phenotype map. Therefore, the sum of values of alleles at each locus gives a breeding value (*b_v*) for each individual at a given locus. The sum of breeding values*bvs*across loci gives a breeding value for the phenotypes (*z*), which is computed as follows:*z = ∑_{v =1 }^{n_a} b_v + \varepsilon_e(0, σ_e)*Where

*n_a*is equal to 'add.loci' and*σ_e*is equal to 'e.v'. The environmental contribution*\varepsilon_e*is assumed to be stochastic and normally distributed, with a mean of 0 and standard variation 'e.v'. This function returns a data.frame with rows equal to the number of individuals and two columns ('sex' and 'z')

The default fitness function (

*ω*) computes a Gaussian relationship between*z*and*ω*. The following parameters are needed:b0: A numerical value defining the maximum number of offspring generated by breeding pair. This value should be included within a list in 'param.w'.

b1: A numerical value defining the phenotypic optima. In the gaussiam relationship between

*z*and*ω*, the value of 'b1' represent the*z*value expected to produce the maximum number of offspring. This value should be included within a list in 'param.w'. The difference in phenotypic optima between the populations drives the strength of 'divergent selection'. Populations exposed to equal phenotypic optima are considered to be under 'concordant selection'.b2: A numerical value defining the variance of the Gaussian curve. This value should be included within a list in 'param.z'.

b3: A numerical value defining the intensity of the density-dependence on the fitness of individuals in a population of size

*N*. This value should be included within a list in 'param.w'.d.v: A numerical value defining a stochastic demographic variant in the fitness of individuals. This value should be included within a list in 'param.w'.

add.loci: An integer with the total number of additive loci participating in the computation of phenotypes. This object should be included within a list in 'param.w'.

The default fitness function (

*ω*) has the form:*ω = b_0 \exp^{ -\frac{1}{2} ≤ft ( \frac{4z - b_1n_a}{b_2n_a} \right )^2} - b_3N + \varepsilon_d(0, σ_d )*Where

*n_a*is equal to 'add.loci',*N*is the population size and*σ_d*is equal to 'd.v'. The demographic variant*\varepsilon_d*is assumed to be stochastic and normally distributed, with a mean of 0 and standard variation 'd.v'. This function returns a vector with the fitness value (*ω*) of individuals.

'custom' is a custom computation of phenotypes and fitness functions. These functions will define the type of selection fitting particular case studies. The name of each user defined function should be introduced in the 'fun' parameter as a character vector with two elements e.g. c('phenotype', 'fitness'). Assuming a per-generation time step, the potential number of offspring produced by each individual depends on its phenotype

*ω = f(z)*, which in turn depends on the individual genotype and on the environment*z = g(G, E)*.*G*is a numeric value determined by an individual’s genotype, representing the genetic value of the genotype. In the case of an additive genetic map, the genetic value of a genotype will be a breeding value.*E*represents the effect of the environment on phenotypic expression, and this enables the effects of plasticity on phenotypic expression to be captured. The list of parameters 'param.z' and 'param.w' include all needed parameters for the custom 'phenotype' and 'fitness' functions. These lists should not include variables. For the phenotype function, the variable genetic structure of individuals is already included as the object 'struct', which should also be the first argument of the custom phenotype function, followed by "...". This means that all parameters used in the custom phenotype function are only included in 'param.z'. The custom phenotype function should return a matrix with two columns, named "z" and "sex". The first column is the resulting phenotype value and the second column represents the assignation of sex to each individual. For the fitness function, the variable individual phenotype value, sex of individuals and the population size are already included in the environment. The function should start with these three elements ("z","sex","n"), followed by "...". The user does not need to use all three of these variables. All parameters needed for the custom fitness function should be included in 'param.w'. This function should return a vector 'w' with fitness values for the individuals (see Examples).

The recombination between homologous chromosomes are either of type 'map' or 'average'. The first case needs a vector with the recombination rate (*ρ*) between neigbour loci of length equal to *nl - 1* (*nl*: number of loci). The probability of having a crossover (1) or not (0) is uniformly distributed at a rate defined by the value of *ρ* between loci
(i.e. positions with a probability smaller than *ρ* recombine). The uniform distribution allows each position with the same values of *ρ* to have an equal chance of crossover across all iterations. There is no recombination between homologous chromosomes when *ρ = 0*, both loci are completely linked (e.g. within an inversion or situated close to centromeres), while with a value of *ρ = 0.5*, the recombination rate is completely random (i.e. both loci are very distant on the same chromosome or are located on different chromosomes).
A value of *ρ < 0.5* means the loci are physically linked. The second case, when recombination is of type 'average', a numerical value with the average recombination rate per base pair should be supplied, the loci position and the size of the chromosome in megabase are also required. The crossover points are exponentially distributed as a Poisson process (see Example).

A list of objects of class `"struct"`

or array.

Quilodrán, C. S., Ruegg, K., Sendell-Price, A. T., Anderson, E., Coulson, T. and Clegg, S. (2020).
The many population genetic and demographic routes to islands of genomic divergence.
*Methods in Ecology and Evolution 11(1):6-21.*.
doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.13324.

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## Not run:
## We start with a population of 20 individuals and 10 biallelic SNPs
initial.population.size <- 20
n.loci <- 10
n.alleles.per.locus <- 2
start1 <- initial.struct(initial.population.size,n.loci,n.alleles.per.locus)
##################################
# Type of evolution = "constant" #
##################################
## We set a recombination map and the number of generations to be simulated
recom.map <- rep(0.5, n.loci-1) #all loci are independent
n.gens <- 10
pop <- evolve(list(start1), n.gens, "constant", "map", recom.map)
## A similar simulation but with recombination type "average".
## We need to specify the position of loci and the size of the chromosome (MB)
loci.pos<- sample(80000: 12000000, 10) #random loci positions
chromo_mb<-12000000 #chromosome size
crossover <- 1/100000000.0 #average recombination rate (1 cM/MB)
pop <- evolve(list(start1), n.gens, "constant", "average", crossover, loci.pos, chromo_mb)
# We include a mutation rate for the simulation of biallelic loci
pop <- evolve(list(start1), n.gens, "constant", "average", crossover,
loci.pos, chromo_mb, mutation.rate = 0.0001)
# A second population is included to incorporate the effect of migration
start2 <- initial.struct(initial.population.size,n.loci,n.alleles.per.locus)
pop <- evolve(list(start1, start2), n.gens, "constant", "average", crossover,
loci.pos, chromo_mb, migration.rate = 0.01)
# The sex of individuals may be set for the starting generations.
sex.start1 <- sample(1:2, initial.population.size, replace=T)
sex.start2 <- sample(1:2, initial.population.size, replace=T)
init.sex <- list(sex.start1, sex.start2)
pop <- evolve(list(start1, start2), n.gens, "constant", "average", crossover,
loci.pos, chromo_mb, init.sex = init.sex)
##################################
# Type of evolution = "dynamic" #
##################################
## We set the parameters for the computation of phenotypes and for the
## fitness function of the type 'dynamic'
sex.ratio <- 0.5
mean.fitness <- 3 #mean number of offsprings per breeding pair
d.d <- 0.01 #density-dependent demographic effect
set.seed(1) #setting the seed for reproducible random numbers
pop <- evolve(list(start1), n.gens, "dynamic", "map", recom.map, param.z = list(list(sex.ratio)),
param.w = list(list(mean.fitness, d.d)))
##################################
# Type of evolution = "additive" #
##################################
## We set the parameters for the computation of phenotypes and for
## the fitness function of the type 'additive'
sex.ratio <- 0.5
fitness.pos <- 1:n.loci #all simulated loci are additive
add.loci <- n.loci
# next line is breeding value of additive loci
bvs <- t(array( seq(0,1, length = n.alleles.per.locus) ,c(n.alleles.per.locus, add.loci)))
e.v <- 0.01 # stochastic environmental variant
param.z <- list(sex.ratio, fitness.pos, bvs, add.loci, e.v)
b0 <- 6 # maximum number of offspring
b1 <- 1 # phenotypic optima
b2 <- 0.75 # variance of the Gaussian curve
b3 <- 0.01 # intensity of the density-dependence
d.v = 1 # stochastic demographic variant
param.w <- list(b0,b1,b2,b3, d.v, add.loci)
set.seed(1) #setting the seed for reproducible random numbers
pop<-evolve(list(start1), n.gens, "additive", "map", recom.map,
param.z = list(param.z), param.w = list(param.w))
##################################
# Type of evolution = "custom" #
##################################
## We set a custom 'phenotype' and 'fitness' function.
## In this example, the custom functions are very similar to the default 'additive' ones.
phenotype2 <- function(struct, ...){
pop.struct <- struct[ , fitness.pos, ]
temp <- dim(pop.struct)
mat <- matrix(1:temp[2],temp[1],temp[2],byrow=TRUE)
# the next line gives an array that gives the locus index at each position in pop.struct
loci.n <- array(mat,c(temp[1],temp[2],2))
new.n <- (pop.struct-1)*add.loci+loci.n
bvv <- as.vector(bvs) # turn to bvs
outp <- array(bvv[new.n],c(temp[1],temp[2],2))
z <- apply(outp,1,sum)-add.loci+rnorm(temp[1],0,e.v)
sex <- rbinom(nrow(struct), 1, sex.ratio)+1
return(cbind(z = z, sex = sex))
}
fitness2 <- function(z, sex, n, ...){
ng <- n.loci
a <- b0
b <- b1
c <- b2
w <- round( a*exp(-((z-b*ng)^2)/(2*(c*ng)^2) ) - b3*n + rnorm(n,0,d.v) , 0)
w <- ifelse(w<0,0,w)
return(w)
}
set.seed(1) #setting the seed for reproducible random numbers
pop<-evolve(list(start1), n.gens, "custom", "map", recom.map,
param.z =list(sex.ratio = sex.ratio, fitness.pos = fitness.pos,
bvs = bvs, add.loci = add.loci, e.v = e.v),
param.w = list(b0 = b0, b1 = b1, b2 = b2, b3 = b3, d.v = d.v, n.loci = add.loci),
fun=c("phenotype2", "fitness2"))
## End(Not run)
``` |

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