BiocStyle::markdown()

source("http://www.bioconductor.org/biocLite.R") biocLite("GOpro", dependencies = TRUE)

After the package is installed, it can be loaded into R workspace typing

```
library(GOpro)
```

This document presents an overview of the GOpro package.
This package is for determining groups of genes and finding characteristic
functions for these groups. It allows for interpreting groups of genes by their
most characteristic biological function. It provides one function *findGO*
which is based on the set of methods. One of these methods allows for determining
significantly different genes between at least two distinct groups
(i.e. patients with different medical condition) - the ANOVA test with
correction for multiple testing. It also provides two methods for grouping
genes. One of them is so-called all pairwise comparisons
utilizing Tukey's method. By this method profiles of genes are determined,
i.e. in terms of the gene expression genes are grouped according to the
differences in the expressions between given cohorts.
Another method of grouping is hierarchical
clustering. This package provides a method for finding the most characteristic
gene ontology terms for anteriorly obtained groups using the
one-sided Fisher's test for overrepresentation of the gene ontology term.
If genes were grouped by the hierarchical clustering, then the most characteristic
function is
found for all possible groups (for each node in the dendrogram).

Genes must be named with the gene aliases and they must be arranged in the same order for each cohort.

Genes which are statistically differently expressed are selected for the
further analysis by ANOVA test.
The *topAOV* parameter denotes the maximum number of significantly
different genes
to be selected. The significance level of ANOVA test is specified
by the *sig.levelAOV* parameter.

This threshold is used as the significance level in the BH correction
for multiple testing.
In the case of equal p-values of the test (below the given threshold),
all genes for which the p-value of the test is the same as for the gene
numbered with the *topAOV* value are included in the result.

There are two methods provided for grouping genes. They are
specified by the *grouped* parameter. The first one using
Tukey's test is called when *grouped* equals *'tukey'* and the
second one can be called by using the *'clustering'* value.

The Tukey's test is applied to group genes based on their profiles.
The *sig.levelTUK* parameter denotes the significance level of Tukey's test.
For each gene two-sided Tukey's test is conducted among cohorts.
The mean expressions in the cohorts are arranged in
ascending order and the result of the test is adapted. All genes with
the same order of means and the same result of the test are grouped together.
I.e. notation *colon\=bladder\<leukemia* denotes that the mean expression
calculated for a
particular gene in the colon cancer cohort is statistically the same as for the
bladder cancer cohort. Both mean values determined for aforementioned cohorts are
statistically lower than the mean expression measured for the leukemia cohort.

Hierarchical clustering is utilized for grouping genes based on dissimilarity
measures. In this case all clusters are subjected to the further analysis.
The *clust.metric* parameter is a method to calculate a distance measure
between genes, the *clust.method* is the agglomeration method used to cluster genes,
and the *dist.matrix* is an optional parameter for distance matrix if available
*clust.metric*
methods are not sufficient for the user.

For each specified group the *org.Hs.eg.db* is searched for all relevant
GO terms. The number of counts of each GO term is calculated for each group.
Then the Fisher's test is applied in order to find the most characteristic GO terms
for each group of genes.
The *minGO* and *maxGO* parameters denote the range of
counts of genes annotated with each GO term. All GO terms with
counts above or below this range are omitted in the analysis. It enables for the
exclusion of very rare or very common gene ontology terms.
Gene ontology domains to be searched for GO terms can be specified by the *onto*
parameter. Possible domains are: *'MF'* (molecular function),
*'BP'* (biological process), and *'CC'* (cellular component).
The *sig.levelGO* parameter specifies the significance level of the Fisher's test
(correction for multiple testing is included).

Data used in this example comes from
The Cancer Genome Atlas.
They were downloaded via RTCGA.PANCAN12 package. The data represents
expressions of 300 genes randomly chosen from 16115 genes determined
for each patient (sample). Three cohorts are
included: acute myleoid leukemia, colon cancer, and bladder cancer.
The data is stored in this *GOpro* package as a MultiAssayExperiment
object.

An example of the data structure:

exrtcga

To run the analysis with default parameters on the exrtcga object call:

```
findGO(exrtcga)
```

The results of the analysis can be presented in a more descriptive
way or in a concise one. To get more descriptive results use *extend=TRUE*
option.
Additionally, the *TERM*, *DEFINITION*, and *ONTOLOGY* for each ontology
term are returned.

findGO(exrtcga, extend = TRUE)

In order to find top 2 GO terms for genes grouped by hierarchical clustering run the following call. The result of clustering is presented on the plot.

findGO(exrtcga, topGO = 2, grouped = 'clustering')

The plot can be also enriched with information about the most frequent ontology domain for each node on the dendrogram.

findGO(exrtcga, topGO = 2, grouped = 'clustering', over.rep = TRUE)

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