ring_buffer_env: Environment-based ring buffer

Description Usage Arguments Details Methods Author(s) Examples

Description

An environment based ring buffer. In contrast with ring_buffer_bytes, this ring buffer is truely circular, implemented as a doubly linked list that loops back on itself. Each element of the ring buffer can hold an arbitrary R object, and no checking is done to make sure that objects are similar types; in this way they are most similar to a circular version of an R list.

Usage

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ring_buffer_env(size, on_overflow = "overwrite")

Arguments

size

The (maximum) number of entries the buffer can contain.

on_overflow

Behaviour on buffer overflow. The default is to overwrite the oldest elements in the buffer ("overwrite"). Alternative actions are "error" which will throw an error if a function tries to add more elements than there are space for, or "grow" which will grow the buffer to accept the new elements.

Details

When pushing objects onto the buffer, you must be careful about the iterate argument. By default if the object has a length() greater than 1 then $push() will iterate over the object (equivalent to $push(data[[1]], iterate=FALSE), $push(data[[2]], iterate=FALSE), and so on).

For more information and usage examples, see the vignette (vignette("ring")).

On underflow (and overflow if on_overflow = "error") ring will raise custom exceptions that can be caught specially by tryCatch. These will have class ring_underflow (and ring_overflow for overflow). This is not supported in the bytes buffer yet. See the examples for usage.

Methods

Note that this methods reference section is repeated verbatim between the three main ring buffer classes; ring_buffer_env ("env"), ring_buffer_bytes ("bytes") and ring_buffer_bytes_typed ("typed"). Almost all methods have the same arguments and behaviour, but hopefully by listing everything together, the differences between implementations will be a bit more apparent.

reset

Reset the state of the buffer. This "zeros" the head and tail pointer (and may or may not actually reset the data) so that the buffer can be used as if fresh.

Usage: reset(clear = FALSE)

Arguments:

  • clear: Logical, indicating if the memory should also be cleared. Generally this is not necessary, but with environment buffers this can let the garbage collector clean up large elements. For the bytes buffer this zeros the memory.

Return value: Nothing; called for the side effect only. &side_effect

duplicate

Clone the ring buffer, creating a copy. Copies both the underlying data and the position of the head and tail.

Usage: duplicate()

Return value: A new ring buffer object

grow

Increase the size of the buffer by n elements.

Usage:

  • bytes, typed: grow(n)

  • env: grow(n, exact = FALSE)

Arguments:

  • n: The number of additional elements that space should be reserved for (scalar non-negative integer).

  • exact: (For bytes buffer only) Logical scalar indicating if growth should increase the size by exactly n elements (if TRUE) or so that at least n additional elements will fit (growing the buffer geometrically if needed).

Return value: _yaml.bad-anchor_

size

Return the capacity (maximum size) of the ring buffer

Usage:

  • env: size()

  • bytes, typed: size(bytes = FALSE)

Arguments:

  • bytes: (for ring_buffer_bytes only) Logical, indicating if the size should be returned in bytes (rather than logical entries, which is the default).

Return value: A scalar integer

bytes_data

Return the total size of the data storage used in this object.

Usage:

  • env: (not supported)

  • bytes, typed: bytes_data()

Return value: A scalar integer

stride

Length of each element in the ring buffer, in bytes. Only implemented (and meaningful) for the bytes buffer; the environment buffer does not support this function as it makes no sense there.

Usage:

  • env: (not supported)

  • bytes, typed: stride()

Return value: A scalar integer

used

Return the amount of space used in the ring buffer.

Usage:

  • env: used()

  • bytes, typed: used(bytes = FALSE)

Arguments:

  • bytes: (for ring_buffer_bytes only) Logical, indicating if the size should be returned in bytes (rather than logical entries, which is the default).

Return value: A scalar integer

free

Return the amount of space free in the ring buffer.

Usage:

  • env: free()

  • bytes, typed: free(bytes = FALSE)

Arguments:

  • bytes: (for ring_buffer_bytes only) Logical, indicating if the size should be returned in bytes (rather than logical entries, which is the default).

Return value: A scalar integer

is_empty

Test if the ring buffer is empty

Usage: is_empty()

Return value: A scalar logical

is_full

Test if the ring buffer is full

Usage: is_full()

Return value: A scalar logical

head_pos

Return the number of entries from the "start" of the ring buffer the head is. This is mostly useful for debugging.

Usage:

  • env: head_pos()

  • bytes, typed: head_pos(bytes = FALSE)

Arguments:

  • bytes: (for ring_buffer_bytes only) Logical, indicating if the position should be returned in bytes (rather than logical entries, which is the default).

Return value: A scalar integer

tail_pos

Return the number of entries from the "start" of the ring buffer the tail is. This is mostly useful for debugging.

Usage:

  • env: tail_pos()

  • bytes, typed: tail_pos(bytes = FALSE)

Arguments:

  • bytes: (for ring_buffer_bytes only) Logical, indicating if the position should be returned in bytes (rather than logical entries, which is the default).

Return value: A scalar integer

head

Return the contents of the head (the most recently written element in the ring buffer).

Usage: head()

Return value: It depends a little here. For ring_buffer_env this is a single R object. For ring_buffer_bytes it is a raw vector, the same length as the stride of the ring buffer. For ring_buffer_bytes_typed, a single R object that has been translated from raw.

tail

Return the contents of the tail (the least recently written element in the ring buffer).

Usage: tail()

Return value: As for head

set

Set a number of ring entries to the same value. The exact behaviour here varies depending on the type of ring buffer. This function may overflow the ring buffer; in this case the tail will be moved.

Usage: set(data, n)

Arguments:

  • data: The data to set each ring element to. For an environment buffer, this may be any R object. For a bytes buffer it may be either a single byte (in which case each ring element will be set to that byte, repeated stride times), or a raw vector of length stride.

  • n: The number of entries to set to data

Return value: Invisibly returns the number of elements actually written (which may be less than n if the buffer overflows). Primarily called for its side effect.

push

Push elements onto the ring buffer head. This may overflow the ring buffer, destroying the oldest elememnts in the buffer (and moving the position of the tail).

Usage:

  • env: push(data, iterate = TRUE)

  • bytes, typed: push(data)

Arguments:

  • data: Data to push onto the ring buffer. For ring_buffer_bytes, this must be a raw vector with a length that is a multiple of the buffer stride. For ring_buffer_bytes_typed it must be a vector of the appropriate type. For ring_buffer_env it may be an arbitrary R object (but see iterate .

  • iterate: For ring_buffer_env only, changes the behaviour with vectors and lists. Because each element of a ring_buffer_env can b an arbitrary R object, for a list x it is ambiguous if push(x) should push one object onto the buffer, or length(x) objects (i.e. equivalent to push(x[[1]]), push(x[[2]]), etc. The iterate argument switches between interpretations; if TRUE (the default) the push will iterate over the object using for (el in x) (with appropriate S3 dispatch). If iterate = FALSE, then the entire object is pushed at once, so always updating only by a single element.

Return value: For ring_buffer_bytes, the data invisibly. For ring_buffer_bytes and ring_buffer_bytes_typed, the position of the head pointer (relative to the beginning of the storage region).

take

Destructively take elements from the ring buffer. This consumes from the tail (the least recently added elements). It is not possibly to underflow the buffer; if more elements are requested than can be supplied then an error will be thrown and the state of the buffer unmodified.

Usage: take(n)

Arguments:

  • n: The number of elements to take.

Return value: For ring_buffer_env a list of n elements. For ring_buffer_bytes, a raw vector of n * stride bytes. For ring_buffer_bytes_typed, an vector of n elements of the storage mode of the ring.

read

Nondestructively read elements from the ring buffer. This is identical to take except that the state of the buffer is not modified.

Usage: read(n)

Arguments:

  • n: The number of elements to read.

Return value: For ring_buffer_env a list of n elements. For ring_buffer_bytes, a raw vector of n * stride bytes. For ring_buffer_bytes_typed, an vector of n elements of the storage mode of the ring.

copy

Copy from this ring buffer into a different ring buffer. This is destructive with respect to both ring buffers; the tail pointer will be moved in this ring buffer as data are taken, and if the destination ring buffer overflows, the tail pointer will be moved too.

Usage: copy(dest, n)

Arguments:

  • dest: The destination ring buffer - will be modified by this call.

  • n: The number of elements to copy

mirror

Mirror the contents of this ring buffer into a different ring buffer. This differs from copy in that this ring buffer is unaffected and in that all of this ring buffer is copied over (including head/tail positions). This provides an alternative way of duplicating state to duplicate if you already have an appropriately sized ring buffer handy. No allocations will be done.

Usage: mirror(dest)

Arguments:

  • dest: The destination ring buffer - will be modified by this call.

Return value: _yaml.bad-anchor_

head_offset

Nondestructively read the contents of the head of the buffer, offset by n entries.

Usage: head_offset(n)

Arguments:

  • n: Head offset. This moves away from the most recently added item. An offset of 0 reads the most recently added element, 1 reads the element added before that.

Return value: As for head

tail_offset

Nondestructively read the contents of the tail of the buffer, offset by n entries.

Usage: tail_offset(n)

Arguments:

  • n: Tail offset. This moves away from the oldest item. An offset of 0 reads the oldest element, 1 reads the element added after that.

Return value: As for tail (see head)

take_head

As for take, but operating on the head rather than the tail. This is destructive with respect to the head.

Usage: take_head(n)

Arguments:

  • n: Number of elements to take.

Return value: As for take

read_head

As for read, but operating on the head rather than the tail. This is not destructive with respect to the tail.

Usage: read_head(n)

Arguments:

  • n: Number of elements to read.

Return value: As for read

head_set

Set data to the head without advancing. This is useful in cases where the head data will be set and advanced seprately (with head_advance). This is unlikely to be useful for all users. It is used extensively in dde (but called from C).

Usage: head_set(data)

Arguments:

  • data: Data to set into the head. For the bytes buffer this must be exactly stride bytes long, and for the environment buffer it corresponds to a single "element".

Return value: _yaml.bad-anchor_

head_data

Retrieve the current data stored in the head but not advanced. For many cases this may be junk - if the byte buffer has looped then it will be the bytes that will be overwritten on the next write. However, when using head_set it will be the data that have been set into the buffer but not yet committed with head_advance.

Usage: head_data()

Return value: As for head

head_advance

Shift the head around one position. This commits any data written by head_set.

Usage: head_advance()

Return value: _yaml.bad-anchor_

Author(s)

Rich FitzJohn

Examples

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buf <- ring_buffer_env(10)
buf$push(1:10)
buf$take(3)
buf$push(11:15)
buf$take(2)

# The "on_overflow" argument by default allows for the buffer to
# overwrite on overflow.
buf <- ring_buffer_env(10)
buf$push(1:10)
unlist(buf$read(buf$used())) # 1:10
# Over-write the first 5
buf$push(11:15)
unlist(buf$read(buf$used())) # 6:15

# Unlike ring_buffer_bytes, these ring buffers can hold any R
# object.  However, you must be careful about use of iterate!
buf$push(lm(mpg ~ cyl, mtcars), iterate = FALSE)
buf$take(1)

# Alternatively, grow the buffer as overwriting happens
buf <- ring_buffer_env(10, "grow")
buf$push(1:10)
buf$push(11:15)
unlist(buf$read(buf$used())) # 1:15

# Or throw an error on overflow
buf <- ring_buffer_env(10, "error")
buf$push(1:10)
try(buf$push(11:15))

# The errors that are thrown on underflow / overflow are typed so
# can be caught by tryCatch:
tryCatch(buf$read(100),
         ring_underflow = function(e) message("nope"))
tryCatch(buf$push(100),
         ring_overflow = function(e) message("nope again"))

richfitz/ring documentation built on May 27, 2019, 8:30 a.m.