This function is designed to take the democracy data included in this package
and put it in a form suitable for use with the
mirt package to
replicate the UDS model. It takes a data frame and tries to determine, from
the colum names, which variables contain democracy scores.
A dataset of democracy scores. For the function to do anything,
the column names must contain at least one of the following strings:
A names list of functions to modify the columns. It defaults to the following:
If the column names contain the strings
function performs the following transformations by default:
arat: Following Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton's replication code
(Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton 2013), the function cuts Arat (1991)'s 0-109
democracy score into 7 intervals with the following cutoffs: 50, 60, 70, 80,
90, and 100. The resulting score is ordinal from 1 to 8.
bollen: Following Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton's replication code
(Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton 2013), the function cuts Bollen's (2001)'s
0-100 democracy score into 10 intervals with the following cutoffs:
10,20,30,40,50,60,70,80, and 90. The resulting score is ordinal from 1 to 10.
wgi: If the World Governance Indicator's index of voice and
acocuntability is included in the file, the function cuts it into 20
categories. The resulting score is ordinal from 1 to 20.
hadenius: Following Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton's replication code
(Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton 2013), the function cuts Hadenius (1992)'s 0-10
democracy score into 8 intervals with the following cutoffs: 1, 2,3,4, 7, 8,
and 9. The resulting score is ordinal from 1 to 8.
munck: Following Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton's replication code
(Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton 2013), the function cuts Munck's (2009)'s 0-1
democracy score into 4 intervals with the following cutoffs: 0.5,0.5,0.75, and
0.99. The resulting score is ordinal from 1 to 4.
peps: If any of the variants of the Participation-Enhanced Polity Score
(Moon et al 2006) is included in the file, the function rounds its value
(eliminates the decimal) and then transforms it into an ordinal measure from 1
polity: Following Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton's replication code
(Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton 2013), the function takes the polity scores and
puts NA for any values below -10, and then transforms it into an ordinal
measure from 1 to 21.
If any of the polyarchy inclusion or contestation dimensions from Coppedge,
Alvarez and Maldonado (2008) are included, it cuts them into into 20
categories. The resulting score is ordinal from 1 to 20.
v2x: If any of the v2x_ continuous indexes of democracy from the V-Dem
dataset (Coppedge et al 2015) are included in the file, the function cuts them
into 20 categories. The resulting score is ordinal from 1 to 20.
vanhanen_pmm: Following Pemstein,
Meserve, and Melton's replication code (Pemstein, Meserve, and Melton 2013),
the function cuts Vanhanen's (2012)'s index of democratization into 8
intervals with the following cutoffs: 5,10,15,20,25,30, and 35. The resulting
score is ordinal from 1 to 8.
The function also recognizes the following column names (or partial column
names - it also recognizes, e.g., pmm_blm) as measures of democracy:
anckar (from Anckar and Fredriksson 2018),
blm (from Bowman,
Lehoucq, and Mahoney 2005),
bmr (from Boix, Miller, and Rosato 2012),
doorenspleet (from Doorenspleet 2000),
e_v2x (the "ordinal"
indexes from the V-dem project, Coppedge at al 2015),
fh (from Freedom House - freedom scale must be reversed so that "more
freedom" is higher),
gwf (from Geddes, Wright, and Frantz 2014 - the
dichotomous democracy indicator only),
kailitz (from Kailitz 2013 -
Skaaning, Gerring, and Bartusevicius 2015),
mainwaring (from Mainwaring
and Perez Linan 2008),
magaloni (from Magaloni, Min, Chu 2013 -
pacl (from Cheibub, Gandhi, and
pitf (from Goldstone et al 2010 or Taylor and Ulfelder
polyarchy (from Coppedge and Reinicke 1991),
Gasiorowski 1996 or Reich 2002),
PIPE (from Przeworski 2010),
reign (from Bell 2016),
svmdi (from Grundler and Krieger 2018,
svolik (from Svolik 2012, democracy/dictatorship indicator
ulfelder (from Ulfelder 2012),
utip (from Hsu 2008), and
wahman_teorell_hadenius (from Wahman, Teorell, and
Hadenius 2013). In each of these cases the function transforms the values of
these scores by running
transforms them into ordinal variables from 1 to the number of categories.
For details of these scores, see the documentation for
It is also possible to change these defaults.
A data frame with the transformed scores, if any.
Warning! The function does not perform any sanity checks. It will try to transform anything that has the right name. You should always check the results make sense.
Anckar, Carsten and C. Fredriksson. 2018. "Classifying political regimes 1800-2016: a typology and a new dataset". European Political Science. DOI: 10.1057/s41304-018-0149-8. Data and codebook available at https://doi.org/10.1057/s41304-018-0149-8.
Arat, Zehra F. 1991. Democracy and human rights in developing countries. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Bell, Curtis. 2016. The Rulers, Elections, and Irregular Governance Dataset (REIGN).http://oefresearch.org/datasets/reign
Boix, Carles, Michael Miller, and Sebastian Rosato. 2012. A Complete Data Set of Political Regimes, 1800-2007. Comparative Political Studies 46 (12): 1523-1554. Original data available at https://sites.google.com/site/mkmtwo/democracy-v2.0.dta?attredirects=0
Bollen, Kenneth A. 2001. "Cross-National Indicators of Liberal Democracy, 1950-1990." 2nd ICPSR version. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1998. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2001. Original data available at http://webapp.icpsr.umich.edu/cocoon/ICPSR-STUDY/02532.xml.
Bowman, Kirk, Fabrice Lehoucq, and James Mahoney. 2005. Measuring Political Democracy: Case Expertise, Data Adequacy, and Central America. Comparative Political Studies 38 (8): 939-970. http://cps.sagepub.com/content/38/8/939. Data available at http://www.blmdemocracy.gatech.edu/.
Cheibub, Jose Antonio, Jennifer Gandhi, and James Raymond Vreeland. 2010. "Democracy and Dictatorship Revisited." Public Choice. 143(1):67-101. Original data available at https://sites.google.com/site/joseantoniocheibub/datasets/democracy-and-dictatorship-revisited.
Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Staffan I. Lindberg, Svend-Erik Skaaning, and Jan Teorell, with David Altman, Michael Bernhard, M. Steven Fish, Adam Glynn, Allen Hicken, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Kelly McMann, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Jeffrey Staton, Brigitte Zimmerman, Frida Andersson, Valeriya Mechkova, Farhad Miri. 2015. V-Dem Codebook v5. Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project. Original data available at https://v-dem.net/en/data/.
Coppedge, Michael and Wolfgang H. Reinicke. 1991. Measuring Polyarchy. In On Measuring Democracy: Its Consequences and Concomitants, ed. Alex Inkeles. New Brunswuck, NJ: Transaction pp. 47-68.
Coppedge, A. Alvarez and C. Maldonado. 2008. "Two Persistent Dimensions of Democracy: Contestation and Inclusiveness". The Journal of Politics 70.03, pp. 632-647. DOI: 10.1017/S0022381608080663.
Doorenspleet, Renske. 2000. Reassessing the Three Waves of Democratization. World Politics 52 (03): 384-406. DOI: 10.1017/S0043887100016580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0043887100016580.
Kaufmann, D. and A. Kraay. 2016. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2016. http://www.govindicators.org.
Freedom House. 2015. "Freedom in the World." Original data available at http://www.freedomhouse.org.
Gasiorowski, Mark J. 1996. "An Overview of the Political Regime Change Dataset." Comparative Political Studies 29(4):469-483.
Geddes, Barbara, Joseph Wright, and Erica Frantz. 2014. Autocratic Breakdown and Regime Transitions: A New Data Set. Perspectives on Politics 12 (1): 313-331. Original data available at http://dictators.la.psu.edu/.
Goldstone, Jack, Robert Bates, David Epstein, Ted Gurr, Michael Lustik, Monty Marshall, Jay Ulfelder, and Mark Woodward. 2010. A Global Model for Forecasting Political Instability. American Journal of Political Science 54 (1): 190-208. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2009.00426.x
Grundler, K. and T. Krieger. 2018. "Machine Learning Indices, Political Institutions, and Economic Development". Report. CESifo Group Munich, 2018. https://www.cesifo-group.de/DocDL/cesifo1_wp6930.pdf.
Grundler, K. and T. Krieger. 2016. "Democracy and growth: Evidence from a machine learning indicator". European Journal of Political Economy 45, pp. 85-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2016.05.005.
Hadenius, Axel. 1992. Democracy and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hadenius, Axel & Jan Teorell. 2007. "Pathways from Authoritarianism", Journal of Democracy 18(1): 143-156.
Hsu, Sara "The Effect of Political Regimes on Inequality, 1963-2002," UTIP Working Paper No. 53 (2008), http://utip.gov.utexas.edu/papers/utip_53.pdf. Data available for download at http://utip.gov.utexas.edu/data/.
Kailitz, Steffen. 2013. Classifying political regimes revisited: legitimation and durability. Democratization 20 (1): 39-60. Original data available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2013.738861.
Mainwaring, Scott, Daniel Brinks, and Anibal Perez Linan. 2008. "Political Regimes in Latin America, 1900-2007." Original data available from http://kellogg.nd.edu/scottmainwaring/Political_Regimes.pdf.
Magaloni, Beatriz, Jonathan Chu, and Eric Min. 2013. Autocracies of the World, 1950-2012 (Version 1.0). Dataset, Stanford University. Original data and codebook available at http://cddrl.fsi.stanford.edu/research/autocracies_of_the_world_dataset/
Marshall, Monty G., Ted Robert Gurr, and Keith Jaggers. 2012. "Polity IV: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800-2012." Updated to 2015. Original data available from http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/polity4.htm.
Moon, Bruce E., Jennifer Harvey Birdsall, Sylvia Ceisluk, Lauren M. Garlett, Joshua J. Hermias, Elizabeth Mendenhall, Patrick D. Schmid, and Wai Hong Wong (2006) "Voting Counts: Participation in the Measurement of Democracy" Studies in Comparative International Development 42, 2 (Summer, 2006). The complete dataset is available here: http://www.lehigh.edu/~bm05/democracy/Obtain_data.htm.
Munck, Gerardo L. 2009. Measuring Democracy: A Bridge Between Scholarship and Politics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Pemstein, Daniel, Stephen Meserve, and James Melton. 2010. Democratic Compromise: A Latent Variable Analysis of Ten Measures of Regime Type. Political Analysis 18 (4): 426-449.
Pemstein, Daniel, Stephen A. Meserve, and James Melton. 2013. "Replication data for: Democratic Compromise: A Latent Variable Analysis of Ten Measures of Regime Type." In: Harvard Dataverse. http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/PMM
Przeworski, Adam et al. 2013. Political Institutions and Political Events (PIPE) Data Set. Department of Politics, New York University. https://sites.google.com/a/nyu.edu/adam-przeworski/home/data
Reich, G. 2002. Categorizing Political Regimes: New Data for Old Problems. Democratization 9 (4): 1-24. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/714000289.
Skaaning, Svend-Erik, John Gerring, and Henrikas Bartusevicius. 2015. A Lexical Index of Electoral Democracy. Comparative Political Studies 48 (12): 1491-1525. Original data available from http://thedata.harvard.edu/dvn/dv/skaaning.
Svolik, Milan. 2012. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Original data available from http://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/the-politics-of-authoritarian-rule/.
Taylor, Sean J. and Ulfelder, Jay, A Measurement Error Model of Dichotomous Democracy Status (May 20, 2015). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2726962 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2726962
Ulfelder, Jay. 2012. "Democracy/Autocracy Data Set." In: Harvard Dataverse. http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/18836.
Vanhanen, Tatu. 2012. "FSD1289 Measures of Democracy 1810-2012." Original data available from http://www.fsd.uta.fi/english/data/catalogue/FSD1289/meF1289e.html
Wahman, Michael, Jan Teorell, and Axel Hadenius. 2013. Authoritarian regime types revisited: updated data in comparative perspective. Contemporary Politics 19 (1): 19-34.
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