Age_OSLC14  R Documentation 
This function computes an age of OSL data consisting of at least two samples and calibrate
C14 ages of samples to get an age (in ka).
Ages of OSL data are computed according to the model given in Combes and Philippe (2017).
Singlegrain or Multigrain OSL measurements can be analysed simultaneously
(with output of Generate_DataFile or Generate_DataFile_MG or both of them using combine_DataFiles).
Samples, for which data is available in several BIN files, can be analysed.
For C14 data, the user can choose one of the following radiocarbon calibration curve:
Northern or Southern Hemisphere or marine atmospheric.
Age_OSLC14( DATA, Data_C14Cal, Data_SigmaC14Cal, Nb_sample, SampleNames, SampleNature, PriorAge = rep(c(10, 60), Nb_sample), SavePdf = FALSE, OutputFileName = c("MCMCplot", "HPD_Cal14CCurve", "summary"), OutputFilePath = c(""), SaveEstimates = FALSE, OutputTableName = c("DATA"), OutputTablePath = c(""), StratiConstraints = c(), sepSC = c(","), BinPerSample = rep(1, sum(SampleNature[1, ])), THETA = c(), sepTHETA = c(","), LIN_fit = TRUE, Origin_fit = FALSE, distribution = c("cauchy"), Model_C14 = c("full"), CalibrationCurve = c("IntCal20"), Iter = 50000, t = 5, n.chains = 3, jags_method = "rjags", quiet = FALSE, roundingOfValue = 3, ... )
DATA 
list of objects: 
Data_C14Cal 
numeric vector: corresponding to C14 age estimate
(in years, conversion in ka is automatically done in the function).
If there is stratigraphic relations between samples, 
Data_SigmaC14Cal 
numeric: corresponding to the error of C14 age estimates. 
Nb_sample 
numeric: number of samples (OSL data and C14 age),
( 
SampleNames 
character: sample names for both OSL data and C14 data.
The length of this vector is equal to 
SampleNature 
matrix: states the nature of the sample.
Row number of 
PriorAge 
numeric (with default): lower and upper bounds for age parameter of each sample (in ka).
Note that, 
SavePdf 
logical (with default): if 
OutputFileName 
character (with default): name of the pdf file that
will be generated by the function if 
OutputFilePath 
character (with default): path to the pdf file that will
be generated by the function if 
SaveEstimates 
logical (with default): if TRUE save Bayes' estimates,
credible interval at level 68% and 95% and the result of the Gelman en Rubin
test of convergence, in a CSVtable named 
OutputTableName 
character (with default): name of the table that will
be generated by the function if 
OutputTablePath 
character (with default): path to the table that will
be generated by the function if 
StratiConstraints 
matrix or character (with default): input object for the
stratigraphic relation between samples. If there is stratigraphic relation between
samples see the details section for instructions regarding how to correctly fill 
sepSC 
character (with default): if 
BinPerSample 
numeric (with default): vector with the number of BINfiles
per OSL sample. The length of this vector is equal to the number of OSL samples.

THETA 
numeric matrix or character (with default): input object for
systematic and individual error for OSL samples. If systematic errors are considered,
see the details section for instructions regarding how to correctly fill 
sepTHETA 
character (with default): if 
LIN_fit 
logical (with default): if 
Origin_fit 
plogical (with default): if 
distribution 
character (with default): type of distribution that defines
how individual equivalent dose values are distributed around the palaeodose, for OSL samples.
Allowed inputs are 
Model_C14 
character (with default): if 
CalibrationCurve 
character (with default): calibration curve chosen, for C14 samples. Allowed inputs are

Iter 
numeric (with default): number of iterations for the MCMC computation (for more information see rjags::jags.model. 
t 
numeric (with default): 1 every 
n.chains 
numeric (with default): number of independent chains for the model (for more information see [rjags::jags.model). 
jags_method 
character (with default): select computation method, supported are 
quiet 
logical (with default): enables/disables rjags messages 
roundingOfValue 
integer (with default): Integer indicating the number of decimal places to be used, default = 3. 
... 
further arguments that can be passed to control the Bayesian process, see details for supported arguments 
Note that there are three types of arguments in the previous list.
There are arguments for information concerning only OSL samples: DATA
, BinPerSample
, THETA
,
sepTHETA
, LIN_fit
, Origin_fit
, distribution
.
There are arguments for information concerning only C14 samples: Data_C14Cal
, Data_SigmaC14Cal
,
Model_C14
, CalibrationCurve
.
There are arguments for information concerning all the samples: Nb_sample
, SampleNames
, SampleNature
,
PriorAge
, SavePdf
, OutputFileName
, OutputFilePath
, SaveEstimates
, OutputTableName
,
OutputTablePath
, StratiConstraints
, sepSC
.
Supported ...
arguments
ARGUMENT  INPUT  METHOD  DEFAULT  DESCRIPTION 
max.time  character  rjparallel  Inf  maximum allowed processing time, e.g.,
10m for 10 minutes (cf. runjags::autorun.jags) 
interactive  logical  rjparallel  FALSE  enable/disable interactive mode (cf. runjags::autorun.jags) 
startburnin  integer  rjparallel  4000  number of burnin iterations (cf. runjags::autorun.jags) 
startsample  integer  rjparallel  10000  total number of samples to assess convergence (cf. runjags::autorun.jags) 
inits  named list  rjparallel  NA  fine control over random seeds and random number generator runjags::autorun.jags 
How to fill 'StratiConstraints?
If there are stratigraphic relations between samples, 14C estimate age in Data_C14Cal
must be ordered by order of increasing ages,
as informations in DATA
. Names in SampleNames
must be ordered and corresponds to the order in Data_C14Cal
and in DATA
,
also if it is needed to mix names of OSL samples and 14C samples.
The user can fill the StratiConstraints
matrix as follow.
Size of the matrix: row number of StratiConstraints
matrix is equal to Nb_sample+1
,
and column number is equal to Nb_sample
.
First line of the matrix:
for all i in {1,...,Nb_Sample}
, StratiConstraints[1,i]=1
that means the lower bound of the sample age (given in PriorAge[2i1]
)
for the sample whose number ID is equal to i
, is taken into account.
Sample relations: for all j in {2,...,Nb_Sample+1}
and all i in {j,...,Nb_Sample}
,
StratiConstraints[j,i]=1
if sample age whose number ID is equal to j1
is lower than sample age whose number ID is equal to i
.
Otherwise, StratiConstraints[j,i]=0
.
Note that StratiConstraints_{2:Nb_sample+1,1:Nb_sample}
is a upper triangular matrix.
The user can also use SCMatrix
or SC_Ordered
(if all samples are ordered) function to construct
the StratiConstraints
matrix.
The user can also refer to a csv file that contains the relation between samples as defined above.
The user must be careful about which separator is used in the csv file using the argument sepSC
.
How to fill THETA
covariance matrix concerning common and individual error?
If systematic errors are considered, the user can fill the THETA
matrix as follow.
row number of THETA
is equal the column number, equal to Nb_sample
.
For all i in {1,...,Nb_sample}
, THETA[i,i]
contains individual error
plus systematic error of the sample whose number ID is equal to i
.
For all i,j in {1,...,Nb_sample}
and i
different from j
,
THETA[i,j]
contains common error between samples whose number ID are equal to i
and j
.
Note that THETA[i,j]
is a symmetric matrix.
The user can also refer to a .csv file that contains the errors as defined above.
Option on growth curves
As for Age_Computation
and Palaeodose_Computation
, the user can choose from 4 dose response curves:
Saturating exponential plus linear growth (AgesMultiCS2_EXPLIN
):
for all x
in IR+, f(x)=a(1exp(x/b))+cx+d
; select
LIN_fit=TRUE
Origin_fit=FALSE
Saturating exponential growth (AgesMultiCS2_EXP
):
for all x
in IR+, f(x)=a(1exp(x/b))+d
; select
LIN_fit=FALSE
Origin_fit=FALSE
Saturating exponential plus linear growth and fitting through the origin (AgesMultiCS2_EXPLINZO
):
for all x
in IR+, f(x)=a(1exp(x/b))+cx
; select
LIN_fit=TRUE
Origin_fit=TRUE
Saturating exponential growth and fitting through the origin (AgesMultiCS2_EXPZO
):
for all x
in IR+, f(x)=a(1exp(x/b))
; select
LIN_fit=FALSE
Origin_fit=TRUE
Option on equivalent dose distribution around the palaeodose
The use can choose between :
cauchy
: a Cauchy distribution with location parameter equal to the palaeodose of the sample
gaussian
: a Gaussian distribution with mean equal to the palaeodose of the sample
lognormal_A
: a lognormal distribution with mean or Average equal to the palaeodose of the sample
lognormal_M
: a lognormal distribution with Median equal to the palaeodose of the sample
More precision on Model
We propose two models "full" or "naive". If Model='full'
that means measurement error and error on calibration curve are taken account in
the Bayesian model; if Model="naive"
that means only error on measurement are taken account in the mode.
More precisely, the model considered here, as the one developed by Christen, JA (1994), assume multiplicative effect of errors to address the problem of outliers. In addition, to not penalise variables that are not outliers and damage theirs estimation, we introduce a structure of mixture, that means only variable that are considered as outlier have in addition a multiplicative error.
NUMERICAL OUTPUT
A list containing the following objects:
Sampling: that corresponds to a sample of the posterior distributions of the age parameters (in ka for both C14 samples and OSL samples);
PriorAge: stating the priors used for the age parameter;
StratiConstraints: stating the stratigraphic relations between samples considered in the model;
Model_OSL_GrowthCurve: stating which dose response fitting option was chosen;
Model_OSL_Distribution: stating which distribution was chosen to model the dispersion of individual equivalent dose values around the palaeodose of the sample;
Model_C14: stating which model was chosen ("full"
or "naive"
);
CalibrationCurve: stating which radiocarbon calibration curve was chosen;
Outlier: stating the names of samples that must be outliers.
The Gelman and Rubin test of convergency: prints the result of the Gelman and Rubin test of convergence for the age estimate for each sample.
A result close to one is expected.
In addition, the user must visually assess the convergence of the trajectories by looking at the graph
generated by the function (see PLOT OUTPUT for more informations).
If both convergences (Gelman and Rubin test and plot checking) are satisfactory,
the user can consider the estimates as valid.
Otherwise, the user may try increasing the number of MCMC iterations (Iter
)
or be more precise on the PriorAge
parameter to reach convergence.
Credible intervals and Bayes estimates: prints the Bayes' estimates, the credible intervals at 95% and 68% for the age parameters for each sample.
PLOT OUTPUT
MCMC trajectories: A graph with the MCMC trajectories and posterior distributions of the age parameter is displayed.
On each line, the plot on the left represents the MCMC trajectories, and the one on the right the posterior distribution of the parameter.
Age estimate and HPD at 95% of 14C samples on calibration curve: plot age estimate and HPD on calibration plot.
Summary of sample age estimates: plot credible intervals and Bayes estimate of each sample age on a same graph.
Christophe, C., Philippe, A., Guerin, G., Kreutzer, S., Baumgarten, F.H., 2022. Age_OSLC14(): Bayesian analysis for age estimation of OSL measurements and C14 ages of various samples. In: Christophe, C., Philippe, A., Kreutzer, S., Guerin, G., 2022. BayLum: Chronological Bayesian Models Integrating Optically Stimulated. R package version 0.2.1. https://CRAN.rproject.org/package=BayLum
Please note that the initial values for all MCMC are currently all the same for all chains since we rely on the automatic initial value generation of JAGS. This is not optimal and will be changed in future. However, it does not affect the quality of the age estimates if the chains have converged.
Claire Christophe, Anne Philippe, Guillaume Guerin, Sebastian Kreutzer, Frederik Harly Baumgarten
Reimer PJ, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Blackwell PC, Bronl Ramsey C, Buck CE, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Friedrich M, Grootes PM, Guilderson TP, Haflidason H, Hajdas I, Hatte C, Heaton TJ, Hoffmann DL, Hogg AG, Hughen KA, Kaiser KF, Kromer B, Manning SW, Niu M, Reimer RW, Richards DA, Scott EM, Southon JR, Staff RA, Turney CSM, van der Plicht J. 2013. IntCal13 ans Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 050000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4)=18691887.
Hogg AG, Hua Q, Blackwell PG, Niu M, Buck CE, Guilderson TP, Heaton TJ, Palmer JG, Reimer PJ, Reimer RW, Turney CSM, Zimmerman SRH. 2013. SHCal13 Southern Hemisphere calibration, 050000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):18891903
rjags, plot_MCMC, SCMatrix, plot_Ages
## Load data # OSL data data(DATA1,envir = environment()) data(DATA2,envir = environment()) Data < combine_DataFiles(DATA2,DATA1) # 14C data C14Cal < DATA_C14$C14[1,1] SigmaC14Cal < DATA_C14$C14[1,2] Names < DATA_C14$Names[1] # Prior Age prior=rep(c(1,60),3) samplenature=matrix(data=c(1,0,1,0,1,0),ncol=3,nrow=2,byrow=TRUE) SC < matrix(data=c(1,1,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,0,0),ncol=3,nrow=4,byrow=TRUE) ## Age computation of samples Age < Age_OSLC14(DATA=Data,Data_C14Cal=C14Cal,Data_SigmaC14Cal=SigmaC14Cal, SampleNames=c("GDB5",Names,"GDB3"),Nb_sample=3,SampleNature=samplenature, PriorAge=prior,StratiConstraints=SC,Iter=50,n.chains=2)
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