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Chemistry Study guide: Scientific Measurement
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Terms in this set (37)
How do you write numbers in scientific notation?
The coefficient is always a number greater than or equal to one and less than 10. The exponent is an integer
How do you evaluate accuracy and precision?
To evaluate the accuracy of a measurement, the measured value must be compared to the correct value. To evaluate the precision of a measurement, you must compare the values of two or more repeated measurements.
Why should measurements be reported to the correct number of significant figures?
Measurements must always be reported to the correct number of significant figures because calculated answers often depend on the number of significant figures in the values used in the calculation.
What makes metric units easy to use?
All metric units are based on multiples of 10. As a result, you can convert between units easily
What is the temperature units scientists commonly use?
Scientists commonly use two equivalent units of temperature, the degree Celsius and the kelvin
What determines the density of a substance?
Density is an intensive property that depends only on the composition of a substance, not on the size of the sample
What happens when a measurement is multiplied by a conversion factor?
When a measurement is multiplied by a conversion factor, the numerical value is generally changed, but the actual size of the quantity measured remains the same
What kinds of problems can you solve using dimensional analysis?
Dimensional analysis is a powerful tool for solving conversion problems in which a measurement with one unit is changed to an equivalent measurement with another unit
Know the metric prefixes from mega to micro (Be able to write a conversion factor using them)
mega- 1,000,000
kilo- 1,000
hecto- 100
deca- 10
deci- 0.1
centi- 0.01
milli- 0.001
micro-0.000001
Kelvin scale
freezing point of water is 273.15 K, and the boiling point of water is 373.15 K
Celsius scale
freezing point of water is 0 degrees C, boiling point is 100 degrees C
How to convert between the Kelvin and Celsius
K= C+273.15
C= K-273.15
1 mL= 1cm^3
The two are interchangeable and both volume units
The density of water
1.0 g/cm^3
Percent error
A mathematical way to indicate accuracy and precision in measurement
Percent error equation
your measurement minus the correct measurement, divided by the correct measurement, then multiplied by 100
A kilogram's original definition
the mass of 1 L of liquid water at 4 degrees Celsius
Density equation
P= mass/volume
Mass equation
Mass= P X volume
Volume equation
Volume=mass/P
Diet and regular cokes
These don't go to the same depths because they have different densities
The property of precision
the consistency of reproducible of measurements relates to this
The standard metric units for: Mass, Volume, Time, Length, and Temperature
kilogram, liter, seconds, meter, and the kelvin
The SI unit of volume
the cubic meter
The SI unit of mass
The mass of an object that is measured in comparison to a standard mass of 1 kilogram
The SI unit for weight
the Newton
The SI unit of energy
the Joule (J)
The English unit for weight
the pound
Mass
the quantitative measure of the amount of matter a material object contains
Weight
the gravitational force exerted on an object by the nearest most massive body
Energy
the capacity to do work or to produce heat
Significant Figures
include all of the digits that are known, plus a last digit that is estimated
Sig Figs (Addition and Subtraction)
the answer should be rounded to the same number of decimal places (not digits) as the measurement with the least number of decimal places
Sig Figs (Multiplication and Division)
You need to round the answer to the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the least number of sig figs. The position of the decimal point has nothing to do with the rounding process
Scientific Notation (Multiplication and Division)
To multiply numbers written in scientific notation, multiply the coefficients and add the exponents. To divide numbers written in scientific notation, divide the coefficients and subtract the exponent in the denominator from the exponent in the numerator
Scientific Notation (Addition and Subtraction)
To add or subtract numbers in scientific notation, the exponents must be the same. The decimal points must be aligned before you add or subtract
Converting between metric units
the known unit is in the denominator and the unknown unit is in the numerator
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