Description Usage Arguments Details Value Note Author(s) References See Also Examples

A function to fit the space-time version of the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model to a catalog of earthquakes (a spatio-temporal point pattern) and perform a stochastic declustering method.

1 2 3 |

`object` |
An object of class |

`param0` |
Initial guess for model parameters. A numeric vector of appropriate length (currently 8). See details. |

`bwd` |
Optional. Bandwidths for smoothness and integration
on the geographical region |

`nnp` |
Number of nearest neighbors for bandwidth calculations. An integer. |

`bwm` |
Minimum bandwidth. A positive numeric value. |

`verbose` |
Logical flag indicating whether to print progress reports. |

`plot.it` |
Logical flag indicating whether plot probabilities of each event being a background event on a map. |

`ndiv` |
An integer indicating the number of knots on each side of the geographical region for integral approximation. |

`no.itr` |
An integer indicating the number of iterations for convergence of the iterative approach of simultaneous estimation and declustering algorithm. See details. |

`rel.tol` |
Relative iteration convergence tolerance of the iterative estimation approach. |

`eps` |
Optimization convergence tolerance in the Davidon-Fletch-Powell algorithm |

`cxxcode` |
Logical flag indicating whether to use the C++ code. The C++ code is slightly faster and allows parallel computing. |

`nthreads` |
An integer indicating number of threads in the parallel region of the C++ code |

Ogata (1988) introduced the epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model based on Gutenberg-Richter law and modified Omori law. In its space-time representation (Ogata, 1998), the ETAS model is a temporal marked point process model, and a special case of marked Hawkes process, with conditional intensity function

*
lambda(t, x, y | H_t ) = mu(x, y)
+ sum[t[i] < t] k(m[i]) g(t - t[i]) f(x - x[i], y - y[i]|m[i])
*

where

*H_t*:is the observational history up to time t, but not including t; that is

*H_t = {(t[i], x[i], y[i], m[i]): t[i] < t}**mu(x, y)*:is the background intensity. Currently it is assumed to take the semi-parametric form

*mu(x, y) = mu u(x, y)*where

*mu*is an unknown constant and*u(x, y)*is an unknown function.*k(m)*:is the expected number of events triggered from an event of magnitude

*m*given by*k(m[i]) = A exp(alpha(m - m0))**g(t)*:is the p.d.f of the occurrence times of the triggered events, taking the form

*g(t) = ((p - 1)/c)(1 + t/c)^(-p)**f(x, y|m)*:is the p.d.f of the locations of the triggered events, considered to be either the long tail inverse power density

*f(x, y|m) = (q - 1)/(pi sigma(m)) (1 + (x^2 + y^2)/(sigma(m)))^(-q)*or the light tail Gaussian density (currently not implemented)

*f(x,y|m)= exp(-(x^2 + y^2)/(2 sigma(m)))/(2 pi sigma(m))*with

*sigma(m) = D exp( gamma (m - m0) )*

The ETAS models classify seismicity into two components, background
seismicity *mu(x,y)* and clustering seismicity
*lambda(t, x, y|H_t) - mu(x, y)*, where
each earthquake event, whether it is a background event or generated by
another event, produces its own offspring according to the branching rules
controlled by *k(m)*, *g(m)* and *f(x, y|m)*.

Background seismicity rate *u(x, y)* and the model parameters

*theta = (mu, A, c, alpha, p, D, q, gamma)*

are estimated simultaneously using an iterative approach proposed in Zhuang et al. (2002).
First, for an initial *u0(x, y)*, the parameter vector
*theta* is estimated by maximizing the log-likelihood function

*l(theta) = sum_[i] lambda(t[i], x[i], y[i]|H_t)
- int lambda(t, x, y|H_t) dx dy dt.*

Then the procedure calculates the probability of being a background event for each event in the catalog by

*mu(x[i], y[i])/lambda(t[i], x[i], y[i]|H_t[i]).*

Using these probabilities and kernel smoothing method with Gaussian kernel
and appropriate choice of bandwidth (determined by `bwd`

or `nnp`

and `bwm`

arguments), the background rate *u0(x, y)*
is updated. These steps are repeated until the estimates converge
(stabilize).

The `no.itr`

argument specifies the maximum number of iterations
in the iterative simultaneous estimation and declustering algorithm.
The estimates often converge in less than ten iterations. The relative
iteration convergence tolerance and the optimization
convergence tolerance are, respectively, determined by
`rel.tol`

and `eps`

arguments.
The progress of the computations can be traced by setting
the `verbose`

and `plot.it`

arguments to be `TRUE`

.

If `cxxcode = TRUE`

, then the internal function `etasfit`

uses the C++ code implemented using the Rcpp package,
which allows multi-thread parallel computing on multi-core processors
with OpenMP.
The argument `nthreads`

in this case determines
the number of threads in the parallel region of the code.
If `nthreads = 1`

(the default case), then a serial version of the
C++ code carries out the computations.

This version of the ETAS model assumes that the earthquake catalog is complete and the data are stationary in time. If the catalog is incomplete or there is non-stationarity (e.g. increasing or cyclic trend) in the time of events, then the results of this function are not reliable.

A list with components

- param:
The ML estimates of model parameters.

- bk:
An estimate of the

*u(x, y)*.- pb:
The probabilities of being background event.

- opt:
The results of optimization: the value of the log-likelihood function at the optimum point, its gradient at the optimum point and AIC of the model.

- rates:
Pixel images of the estimated total intensity, background intensity, clustering intensity and conditional intensity.

This function is based on a `C`

port of the original
`Fortran`

code by Jiancang Zhuang, Yosihiko Ogata and
their colleagues. The `etas`

function is intended to be
used for small and medium-size earthquake catalogs.
For large earthquake catalogs, due to time-consuming
computations, it is highly recommended to
use the parallel `Fortran`

code on a server machine.
The `Fortran`

code (implemented for
parallel/non-parallel computing) can be obtained from
http://bemlar.ism.ac.jp/zhuang/software.html.

Abdollah Jalilian [email protected]

Ogata Y (1988).
Statistical Models for Earthquake Occurrences and Residual Analysis for
Point Processes.
*Journal of the American Statistical Association*,
**83**(401), 9–27. doi:10.2307/2288914.

Ogata Y (1998).
Space-time Point-process Models for Earthquake Occurrences.
*Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics*,
**50**(2), 379–402.
doi:10.1023/a:1003403601725.

Zhuang J, Ogata Y, Vere-Jones D (2002).
Stochastic Declustering of Space-Time Earthquake Occurrences.
*Journal of the American Statistical Association*,
**97**(458), 369–380.
doi:10.1198/016214502760046925.

Zhuang J, Ogata Y, Vere-Jones D (2006).
Diagnostic Analysis of Space-Time Branching Processes for Earthquakes.
In *Case Studies in Spatial Point Process Modeling*,
pp. 275–292. Springer Nature.
doi:10.1007/0-387-31144-0_15.

Zhuang J (2011).
Next-day Earthquake Forecasts for the Japan Region Generated by
the ETAS Model.
*Earth, Planets and Space*,
**63**(3), 207–216.
doi:10.5047/eps.2010.12.010.

`catalog`

for constructing data.
`probs`

for estimated declustering probabilities.
`resid.etas`

for diagnostic plots.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 | ```
# fitting the ETAS model to an Iranian catalog
# preparing the catalog
iran.cat <- catalog(iran.quakes, time.begin="1973/01/01",
study.start="1986/01/01", study.end="2016/01/01",
lat.range=c(26, 40), long.range=c(44, 63), mag.threshold=5)
print(iran.cat)
## Not run:
plot(iran.cat)
## End(Not run)
# setting initial parameter values
param0 <- c(0.46, 0.23, 0.022, 2.8, 1.12, 0.012, 2.4, 0.35)
# fitting the model
## Not run:
iran.fit <- etas(iran.cat, param0=param0)
## End(Not run)
# fitting the ETAS model to an Italian catalog
# preparing the catalog
italy.cat <- catalog(italy.quakes, dist.unit="km")
## Not run:
plot(italy.cat)
## End(Not run)
# setting initial parameter values
mu <- 1
k0 <- 0.005
c <- 0.005
alpha <- 1.05
p <- 1.01
D <- 1.1
q <- 1.52
gamma <- 0.6
# reparametrization: transform k0 to A
A <- pi * k0 / ((p - 1) * c^(p - 1) * (q - 1) * D^(q - 1))
param0 <- c(mu, A, c, alpha, p, D, q, gamma)
# fitting the model
## Not run:
nthreads <- parallel::detectCores()
italy.fit <- etas(italy.cat, param0, nthreads=nthreads)
## End(Not run)
# fitting the ETAS model to a Japanese catalog
# setting the target polygonal study region
jpoly <- list(long=c(134.0, 137.9, 143.1, 144.9, 147.8,
137.8, 137.4, 135.1, 130.6), lat=c(31.9, 33.0, 33.2,
35.2, 41.3, 44.2, 40.2, 38.0, 35.4))
# preparing the catalog
japan.cat <- catalog(japan.quakes, study.start="1953-05-26",
study.end="1990-01-08", region.poly=jpoly, mag.threshold=4.5)
## Not run:
plot(japan.cat)
## End(Not run)
# setting initial parameter values
param0 <- c(0.592844590, 0.204288231, 0.022692883, 1.495169224,
1.109752319, 0.001175925, 1.860044210, 1.041549634)
# fitting the model
## Not run:
nthreads <- parallel::detectCores()
japan.fit <- etas(japan.cat, param0, nthreads=nthreads)
## End(Not run)
``` |

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