Functions for computing Gray encoding from/to binary strings.

1 2 | ```
binary2gray(x)
gray2binary(x)
``` |

`x` |
the string to be evaluated |

Gray encoding allows to obtain binary strings not affected by the well-known Hamming cliff problem. With Gray encoding the number of bit differences between any two consecutive values is one, whereas in binary strings this is not always true.

Luca Scrucca

`binary2decimal`

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | ```
# Consider a five-bit encoding of values 15 and 16 using the standard
# binary coding
decimal2binary(15, 5)
decimal2binary(16, 5)
# Moving from 15 to 16 (or viceversa) all five bits need to be changed,
# but using Gray encoding the two binary strings differ by one bit.
binary2gray(decimal2binary(15, 5))
binary2gray(decimal2binary(16, 5))
``` |

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