Description Usage Details Value Author(s) References

This is part of the Breast Cancer Data, publicly available from the UCI Machine Learning Datasets webpage at https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Breast+Cancer+Wisconsin+%28Original%29

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Ten real-valued features are computed for each cell nucleus:

a) radius (mean of distances from center to points on the perimeter) b) texture (standard deviation of gray-scale values) c) perimeter d) area e) smoothness (local variation in radius lengths) f) compactness (perimeter^2 / area - 1.0) g) concavity (severity of concave portions of the contour) h) concave points (number of concave portions of the contour) i) symmetry j) fractal dimension ("coastline approximation" - 1)

The mean, standard error, and "worst" or largest (mean of the three largest values) of these features were computed for each image, resulting in 30 features. For instance, field 3 is Mean Radius, field 13 is Radius SE, field 23 is Worst Radius.

All feature values are recoded with four significant digits.

Missing attribute values: none

Class distribution: 357 benign, 212 malignant

A Data Frame with 569 rows and 32 columns. The first column is some sort of serial number, and the second column is the class label ('M' for Malignant or 'B' for Benign). The rest of the columns are features.

Mohit Dayal

1. O. L. Mangasarian and W. H. Wolberg: "Cancer diagnosis via linear programming", SIAM News, Volume 23, Number 5, September 1990, pp 1 & 18.

2. William H. Wolberg and O.L. Mangasarian: "Multisurface method of pattern separation for medical diagnosis applied to breast cytology", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., Volume 87, December 1990, pp 9193-9196.

3. O. L. Mangasarian, R. Setiono, and W.H. Wolberg: "Pattern recognition via linear programming: Theory and application to medical diagnosis", in: "Large-scale numerical optimization", Thomas F. Coleman and Yuying Li, editors, SIAM Publications, Philadelphia 1990, pp 22-30.

4. K. P. Bennett & O. L. Mangasarian: "Robust linear programming discrimination of two linearly inseparable sets", Optimization Methods and Software 1, 1992, 23-34 (Gordon & Breach Science Publishers).

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