Description Usage Arguments Value References See Also Examples

Resampling tests for segregation indexes.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 | ```
ResampleTest(
x,
fun,
var = NULL,
simtype = "MonteCarlo",
sampleunit = "unit",
samplesize = NULL,
perc = c(0.05, 0.95),
outl = FALSE,
outmeth = "bp",
sdtimes = 2,
IQRrange = 1.5,
proba = NULL,
nsim = NULL,
setseed = FALSE,
spatobj = NULL,
folder = NULL,
shape = NULL,
delta = 0.5,
exact = FALSE,
d = NULL,
c = NULL,
a = NULL,
ck = NULL,
f = "exp",
b = NULL,
p = NULL,
spatmat = "c",
queen = FALSE,
distin = "m",
distout = "m",
diagval = "0",
fdist = "e",
itype = "multi",
dc = NULL,
center = 1,
polorder = 4,
pred = NULL,
K = 2,
ptype = "int",
variant = "s",
...
)
``` |

`x` |
- an object of class matrix (or which can be coerced to that class), where each column represents the distribution of a group within spatial units. The number of columns should be greater than 1 (at least 2 groups are required). You should not include a column with total population, because this will be interpreted as a group. |

`fun` |
- a character vector with the segregation function to be tested |

`var` |
- vector with the variables to be tested |

`simtype` |
- a character vector with the type of simulation. If simtype = 'Boot', the function generates bootstrap replications If simtype = 'Jack', the function generates jackknife replications If simtype = 'MonteCarlo', the function produces a randomization test using Monte Carlo simulations |

`sampleunit` |
= 'unit' (by default) when the sampling unit is the spatial/organisational unit and sampleunit = 'ind' for individual sampling |

`samplesize` |
- the size of the sample used for bootstraping. If null, the samplesize equals the number of spatial/organizational units(sampleunit = 'unit') or the total total population (sampleunit = 'ind') |

`perc` |
- the percentiles for the bootstrap replications |

`outl` |
- logical parameter for jackknife simulations, if TRUE the function provides the outliers obtained by jackknife iterations |

`outmeth` |
- a character vector designing the outliers detection method: outmeth = 'bp' (by default) for boxplot method outmeth = 'sd' for standard deviation method outmeth = 'z' for normal scores method outmeth = 't' for t Student scores method outmeth = 'chisq' for chi-squared scores method outmeth = 'mad' for median absolute deviation method The estimations based on scoring methods are obtained using outliers package |

`sdtimes` |
- multiplication factor of the standard deviation used for outliers detection with jackknife simulations (2 by default) |

`IQRrange` |
- determines the boxplot thresholds (1.5 by default) as multiplication of IQR (Inter Quartile Range) |

`proba` |
- for Monte Carlo simulations, proba is a vector with location probabilities. If proba = NULL, the vector is equiprobable. If outliers are determined with jackknife technique, proba indicates the probability (confidence interval) for scoring tests. |

`nsim` |
- the number of simulations |

`setseed` |
- if TRUE, specify zero seed for repetead simulation |

`spatobj` |
- a spatial object (SpatialPolygonsDataFrame) with geographic information |

`folder` |
- a character vector with the folder (directory) name indicating where the shapefile is located on the drive |

`shape` |
- a character vector with the name of the shapefile (without the .shp extension). |

`delta` |
- an inequality aversion parameter |

`exact` |
- a logical variable to specifiy the index version: exact = FALSE (by default) for the approximate version of the index, and exact = TRUE for the exact version |

`d` |
- a matrix of the distances between spatial unit centroids |

`c` |
- a standard binary contiguity (adjacency) symmetric matrix where
each element |

`a` |
- a numeric vector containing spatial unit areas |

`ck` |
- a list containing contiguity matrices coresponding to each order (from 1 to K) |

`f` |
- the distance function, f = 'exp' (by default) for negative exponential function and f = 'rec' for reciprocal function |

`b` |
- a common boundaries matrix where each element |

`p` |
- a numeric vector containing spatial units perimeters. |

`spatmat` |
- the method used for spatial calculations: 'c' for the contiguity matrix (by default) or any other user spatial interaction matrix and 'd' for the inverse exponential function of the distance. |

`queen` |
- logical parameter defining criteria used for contiguity matrix computation, TRUE for queen, FALSE (by default) for rook |

`distin` |
- input metric conversion, based on bink package and includes conversions from 'm', 'km', 'inch', 'ft', 'yd', 'mi', 'naut_mi', etc. |

`distout` |
- output metric conversion, based on bink package and includes conversions to 'm', 'km', 'inch', 'ft', 'yd', 'mi', 'naut_mi', etc. |

`diagval` |
- when providing a spatial object or a shape file, the user has the choice of the spatial matrix diagonal definition: diagval = '0' (by default) for an null diagonal and diagval = 'a' to compute the diagonal as 0.6 * square root (spatial/organizational unitsarea) (White, 1983) |

`fdist` |
- the method used for distance interaction matrix: e' for inverse exponential function (by default) and 'l' for linear. |

`itype` |
- a character string defining the index type: itype = 'multi' (by default) for the multi-group index (White, 1986) or itype = 'between' for the between groups version (White, 1983) |

`dc` |
- a numeric vector containing the distances between spatial units centroids and the central spatial unit |

`center` |
- a numeric value giving the number of the spatial unit that represents the center in the table |

`polorder` |
- order of the polynomial approximation (4 by default) |

`pred` |
- a numerical vector with percentiles to be predicted. |

`K` |
- the order of the contiguity matrix |

`ptype` |
- a string variable giving two options for perimeter calculation when a spatial object or shapefile is provided: 'int' to use only interior boundaries of spatial units, and 'all' to use entire boundaries, including the boundaries to the exterior |

`variant` |
- a character variable that allows to choose the index version: variant = 's' for the dissimilarity index adjusted for contiguous spatial units boundary lengths and perimeter/area ratio (by default) and variant = 'w' for the version without perimeter/area ratio |

`...` |
- other specific parameters |

A list with: - index's name - simulation type - statistics summary of the simulations - simulated index distribution - simulated population distribution - matrix with outliers (jackknife) - list with outliers values (jackknife)

Efron, B., and Tibshirani, R. J. (1993).
*An Introduction to the Bootstrap*. New York, Chapman and Hall

Tivadar M. (2019)
*OasisR: An R Package to Bring Some Order to the World of Segregation Measurement*.
Journal of Statistical Software, 89 (7), pp 1-39

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 | ```
x <- segdata@data[ ,1:2]
xtest <- ResampleTest (x, fun ='ISMorrill', simtype = 'MonteCarlo',
sampleunit = 'ind', spatobj = segdata)
xtest$Summary
xtest <- ResampleTest (x, fun ='ISMorrill', simtype = 'Boot',
sampleunit = 'unit', spatobj = segdata)
xtest$Summary
xtest <- ResampleTest (GreHSize@data[,3:5], fun='ISDuncan', simtype = 'Jack',
sampleunit = 'unit', spatobj = GreHSize,
outl = TRUE, outmeth = 'sd', sdtimes = 3)
xtest$Summary
xtest$OutliersVal
``` |

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