Description Format Details Source Examples

Observed counts of male lip cancer for the 56 regions of Scotland over the period 1975-1980.

A data frame with 56 observations on the following 41 variables:

`area`

Region ID.

`cons`

Constant (=1).

`obs`

Observed cases of lip cancer.

`exp`

Expected count.

`perc_aff`

Percentage of the region who work in agriculture, fishing and forestry.

`offs`

Log of the expected count.

`pcons`

Constant (=1).

`denom`

Constant (=1).

`neigh1`

First neighbours.

`neigh2`

Second neighbours.

`neigh3`

Third neighbours.

`neigh4`

Fourth neighbours.

`neigh5`

Fifth neighbours.

`neigh6`

Sixth neighbours.

`neigh7`

Seventh neighbours.

`neigh8`

Eighth neighbours.

`neigh9`

Ninth neighbours.

`neigh10`

Tenth neightbours.

`neigh11`

Eleventh neightbours.

`weight1`

First neighbours' weights.

`weight2`

Second neighbours' weights.

`weight3`

Third neighbours' weights.

`weight4`

Fourth neighbours' weights.

`weight5`

Fifth neighbours' weights.

`weight6`

Sixth neighbours' weights.

`weight7`

Seventh neighbours' weights.

`weight8`

Eighth neighbours' weights.

`weight9`

Ninth neighbours' weights.

`weight10`

Tenth neightbours' weights.

`weight11`

Eleventh neightbours' weights.

`wcar1`

First neighbours' CAR weights.

`wcar2`

Second neighbours' CAR weights.

`wcar3`

Third neighbours' CAR weights.

`wcar4`

Fourth neighbours' CAR weights.

`wcar5`

Fifth neighbours' CAR weights.

`wcar6`

Sixth neighbours' CAR weights.

`wcar7`

Seventh neighbours' CAR weights.

`wcar8`

Eighth neighbours' CAR weights.

`wcar9`

Ninth neighbours' CAR weights.

`wcar10`

Tenth neightbours' CAR weights.

`wcar11`

Eleventh neightbours' CAR weights.

The `lips1`

dataset is one of the sample datasets provided with the multilevel-modelling software package MLwiN (Rasbash et al., 2009), and was analysed in Clayton & Kaldor (1987); see also Browne (2012) for more details.

Browne, W. J. (2012) *MCMC Estimation in MLwiN Version 2.26.* University of Bristol: Centre for Multilevel Modelling.

Clayton, D., Kaldor, J. (1987) Empirical Bayes estimates of age-standardized relative risks for use in disease mapping. *Biometrics* 43: 671-681.

Rasbash, J., Charlton, C., Browne, W.J., Healy, M. and Cameron, B. (2009) *MLwiN Version 2.1.* Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.

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