The Toronto Word Pool
The Toronto Word Pool consists of 1080 words in various grammatical classes together with a variety of normative variables.
TWP contains high frequency nouns, adjectives, and verbs taken
originally from the Thorndike-Lorge (1944) norms.
This word pool has been used in hundreds of studies at Toronto and elsewhere.
A data frame with 1093 observations on the following 12 variables.
number of letters
word frequency, from the Kucera-Francis norms
a measure of first order approximation to English. In a first-order approximation, the probability of generating any string of letters is based on the frequencies of occurrence of individual letters in the language.
a measure of second order approximation to English, bawsed on bigram frequencies.
Orthographic neighbor ratio, taken from Landauer and Streeter (1973). It is the ratio of the frequency of the word in Kucera and Francis (1967) count divided by the sum of the frequencies of all its orthographic neighbors.
dictionary codes, a factor indicating the collection of grammatical classes, 1-5, for a given word form
. In the code, "1" in any position means the item had a dictionary definition as a noun; similarly, a "2" means a verb, "3" means an adjective, "4" means an adverb, and "5" was used to cover all other grammatical categories (but in practice was chiefly a preposition). Thus an entry "2130" indicates an item defined as a verb, noun, and an adjective in that order of historical precedence.
percent noun usage. Words considered unambiguous based on
dictcodeare listed as 0 or 100; other items were rated in a judgment task.
a factor indicating an alternative Canadian spelling of a given word
The last 13 words in the list are alternative Canadian spellings of words
listed earlier, and have duplicate
Friendly, M., Franklin, P., Hoffman, D. & Rubin, D. The Toronto Word Pool, Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 1982, 14(4), 375-399. http://datavis.ca/papers/twp.pdf.
Kucera and Francis, W.N. (1967). Computational Analysis of Present-Day American English. Providence: Brown University Press.
Landauer, T. K., & Streeter, L. A. Structural differences between common and rare words: Failure of equivalent assumptions for theories of word recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 11, 119-131.
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