ALC: Active Learning Cohn for Sequential Design

View source: R/seq_design.R

ALCR Documentation

Active Learning Cohn for Sequential Design

Description

Acts on a gp, dgp2, or dgp3 object. Current version requires squared exponential covariance (cov = "exp2"). Calculates ALC over the input locations x_new using specified reference grid. If no reference grid is specified, x_new is used as the reference. Optionally utilizes SNOW parallelization. User should select the point with the highest ALC to add to the design.

Usage

ALC(object, x_new, ref, cores)

## S3 method for class 'gp'
ALC(object, x_new = NULL, ref = NULL, cores = 1)

## S3 method for class 'dgp2'
ALC(object, x_new = NULL, ref = NULL, cores = 1)

## S3 method for class 'dgp3'
ALC(object, x_new = NULL, ref = NULL, cores = 1)

Arguments

object

object of class gp, dgp2, or dgp3

x_new

matrix of possible input locations, if object has been run through predict the previously stored x_new is used

ref

optional reference grid for ALC approximation, if ref = NULL then x_new is used

cores

number of cores to utilize in parallel, by default no parallelization is used

Details

Not yet implemented for Vecchia-approximated fits.

All iterations in the object are used in the calculation, so samples should be burned-in. Thinning the samples using trim will speed up computation. This function may be used in two ways:

  • Option 1: called on an object with only MCMC iterations, in which case x_new must be specified

  • Option 2: called on an object that has been predicted over, in which case the x_new from predict is used

In Option 2, it is recommended to set store_latent = TRUE for dgp2 and dgp3 objects so latent mappings do not have to be re-calculated. Through predict, the user may specify a mean mapping (mean_map = TRUE) or a full sample from the MVN distribution over w_new (mean_map = FALSE). When the object has not yet been predicted over (Option 1), the mean mapping is used.

SNOW parallelization reduces computation time but requires more memory storage. C code derived from the "laGP" package (Robert B Gramacy and Furong Sun).

Value

list with elements:

  • value: vector of ALC values, indices correspond to x_new

  • time: computation time in seconds

References

Sauer, A, RB Gramacy, and D Higdon. 2020. "Active Learning for Deep Gaussian Process Surrogates." Technometrics, to appear; arXiv:2012.08015.

Seo, S, M Wallat, T Graepel, and K Obermayer. 2000. Gaussian Process Regression: Active Data Selection and Test Point Rejection. In Mustererkennung 2000, 2734. New York, NY: SpringerVerlag.

Gramacy, RB and F Sun. (2016). laGP: Large-Scale Spatial Modeling via Local Approximate Gaussian Processes in R. Journal of Statistical Software 72 (1), 1-46. doi:10.18637/jss.v072.i01

Examples

# --------------------------------------------------------
# Example 1: toy step function, runs in less than 5 seconds
# --------------------------------------------------------

f <- function(x) {
    if (x <= 0.4) return(-1)
    if (x >= 0.6) return(1)
    if (x > 0.4 & x < 0.6) return(10*(x-0.5))
}

x <- seq(0.05, 0.95, length = 7)
y <- sapply(x, f)
x_new <- seq(0, 1, length = 100)

# Fit model and calculate ALC
fit <- fit_two_layer(x, y, nmcmc = 100, cov = "exp2")
fit <- trim(fit, 50)
fit <- predict(fit, x_new, cores = 1, store_latent = TRUE)
alc <- ALC(fit)


# --------------------------------------------------------
# Example 2: damped sine wave
# --------------------------------------------------------

f <- function(x) {
    exp(-10*x) * (cos(10*pi*x - 1) + sin(10*pi*x - 1)) * 5 - 0.2
}

# Training data
x <- seq(0, 1, length = 30)
y <- f(x) + rnorm(30, 0, 0.05)

# Testing data
xx <- seq(0, 1, length = 100)
yy <- f(xx)

plot(xx, yy, type = "l")
points(x, y, col = 2)

# Conduct MCMC (can replace fit_two_layer with fit_one_layer/fit_three_layer)
fit <- fit_two_layer(x, y, D = 1, nmcmc = 2000, cov = "exp2")
plot(fit)
fit <- trim(fit, 1000, 2)

# Option 1 - calculate ALC from MCMC iterations
alc <- ALC(fit, xx)

# Option 2 - calculate ALC after predictions
fit <- predict(fit, xx, cores = 1, store_latent = TRUE)
alc <- ALC(fit)

# Visualize fit
plot(fit)
par(new = TRUE) # overlay ALC
plot(xx, alc$value, type = 'l', lty = 2, 
     axes = FALSE, xlab = '', ylab = '')

# Select next design point
x_new <- xx[which.max(alc$value)]



deepgp documentation built on April 8, 2022, 5:08 p.m.