Description Usage Arguments Details Value References Examples

The function implements SMOTEBoost for binary classification. It returns a list of weak learners that are built on SMOTE-manipulated training-sets, and a vector of error estimations of each weak learner. The weak learners altogether consist the ensemble model.

1 |

`formula` |
A formula specify predictors and target variable. Target variable should be a factor of 0 and 1. Predictors can be either numerical and categorical. |

`data` |
A data frame used for training the model, i.e. training set. |

`size` |
Ensemble size, i.e. number of weak learners in the ensemble model. |

`alg` |
The learning algorithm used to train weak learners in the ensemble model. |

`over` |
Specifying over-sampling rate of SMOTE. Only multiple of 100 is acceptable. |

`smote.k` |
Number of k applied in SMOTE algorithm. Default is 5. |

`rf.ntree` |
Number of decision trees in each forest of the ensemble model when using |

`svm.ker` |
Specifying kernel function when using svm as base algorithm. Four options are available: |

Based on AdaBoost.M2, SMOTEBoost uses SMOTE (Synthetic Minority Over-sampling TEchnique) to increase minority instances in each iteration of training weak learners. An over-sampling rate of SMOTE can be defined by users with argument *over*.

The function requires the target varible to be a factor of 0 and 1, where 1 indicates minority while 0 indicates majority instances. Only binary classification is implemented in this version.

Argument *alg* specifies the learning algorithm used to train weak learners within the ensemble model. Totally five algorithms are implemented: **cart** (Classification and Regression Tree), **c50** (C5.0 Decision Tree), **rf** (Random Forest), **nb** (Naive Bayes), and **svm** (Support Vector Machine). When using Random Forest as base learner, the ensemble model is consisted of forests and each forest contains a number of trees.

The object class of returned list is defined as *modelBst*, which can be directly passed to predict() for predicting test instances.

The function returns a list containing two elements:

`weakLearners` |
A list of weak learners. |

`errorEstimation` |
Error estimation of each weak learner. Calculated by using (pseudo_loss + smooth) / (1 - pseudo_loss + smooth). |

Chawla, N., Lazarevic, A., Hall, L., and Bowyer, K. 2003. SMOTEBoost: Improving Prediction of the Minority Class in Boosting. In Proceedings European Conference on Principles of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. pp. 107-119

Galar, M., Fernandez, A., Barrenechea, E., Bustince, H., and Herrera, F. 2012. A Review on Ensembles for the Class Imbalance Problem: Bagging-, Boosting-, and Hybrid-Based Approaches. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews). 42(4), pp. 463-484.

Freund, Y. and Schapire, R. 1997. A Decision-Theoretic Generalization of On-Line Learning and an Application to Boosting. Journal of Computer and System Sciences. 55, pp. 119-139.

Freund, Y. and Schapire, R. 1996. Experiments with a new boosting algorithm. Machine Learning: In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference. pp. 148-156

Schapire, R. and Singer, Y. 1999. Improved Boosting Algorithms Using Confidence-rated Predictions. Machine Learning. 37(3). pp. 297-336.

1 2 3 4 5 6 | ```
data("iris")
iris <- iris[1:70, ]
iris$Species <- factor(iris$Species, levels = c("setosa", "versicolor"), labels = c("0", "1"))
model1 <- sbo(Species ~ ., data = iris, size = 10, over = 100, alg = "c50")
model2 <- sbo(Species ~ ., data = iris, size = 20, over = 200, alg = "rf", rf.ntree = 100)
model3 <- sbo(Species ~ ., data = iris, size = 40, over = 300, alg = "svm", svm.ker = "sigmoid")
``` |

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