This is a generic function which combines its arguments.
The default method combines its arguments to form a vector. All arguments are coerced to a common type which is the type of the returned value, and all attributes except names are removed.
## S3 Generic function c(...) ## Default S3 method: c(..., recursive = FALSE, use.names = TRUE)
objects to be concatenated. All
logical indicating if
The output type is determined from the highest type of the components
in the hierarchy NULL < raw < logical < integer < double < complex < character
< list < expression. Pairlists are treated as lists, whereas non-vector
components (such as
are treated as one-element
which cannot be unlisted even if
recursive = TRUE.
Note that in R < 4.1.0,
factors were treated only via
integer codes: now there is
c.factor method which combines factors into a factor.
c is sometimes used for its side effect of removing attributes
except names, for example to turn an
array into a vector.
as.vector is a more intuitive way to do this, but also drops
names. Note that methods other than the default are not required
to do this (and they will almost certainly preserve a class attribute).
This is a primitive function.
NULL or an expression or a vector of an appropriate mode.
(With no arguments the value is
This function is S4 generic, but with argument list
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
as.vector to produce
c(1,7:9) c(1:5, 10.5, "next") ## uses with a single argument to drop attributes x <- 1:4 names(x) <- letters[1:4] x c(x) # has names as.vector(x) # no names dim(x) <- c(2,2) x c(x) as.vector(x) ## append to a list: ll <- list(A = 1, c = "C") ## do *not* use c(ll, d = 1:3) # which is == c(ll, as.list(c(d = 1:3))) ## but rather c(ll, d = list(1:3)) # c() combining two lists c(list(A = c(B = 1)), recursive = TRUE) c(options(), recursive = TRUE) c(list(A = c(B = 1, C = 2), B = c(E = 7)), recursive = TRUE)
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