# crossprod: Matrix Crossproduct

 crossprod R Documentation

## Matrix Crossproduct

### Description

Given matrices `x` and `y` as arguments, return a matrix cross-product. This is formally equivalent to (but usually slightly faster than) the call `t(x) %*% y` (`crossprod`) or `x %*% t(y)` (`tcrossprod`).

### Usage

```crossprod(x, y = NULL)

tcrossprod(x, y = NULL)
```

### Arguments

 `x, y` numeric or complex matrices (or vectors): `y = NULL` is taken to be the same matrix as `x`. Vectors are promoted to single-column or single-row matrices, depending on the context.

### Value

A double or complex matrix, with appropriate `dimnames` taken from `x` and `y`.

### Note

When `x` or `y` are not matrices, they are treated as column or row matrices, but their `names` are usually not promoted to `dimnames`. Hence, currently, the last example has empty dimnames.

In the same situation, these matrix products (also `%*%`) are more flexible in promotion of vectors to row or column matrices, such that more cases are allowed, since R 3.2.0.

The propagation of NaN/Inf values, precision, and performance of matrix products can be controlled by `options("matprod")`.

### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

`%*%` and outer product `%o%`.

### Examples

```(z <- crossprod(1:4))    # = sum(1 + 2^2 + 3^2 + 4^2)
drop(z)                  # scalar
x <- 1:4; names(x) <- letters[1:4]; x
tcrossprod(as.matrix(x)) # is
identical(tcrossprod(as.matrix(x)),
crossprod(t(x)))
tcrossprod(x)            # no dimnames

m <- matrix(1:6, 2,3) ; v <- 1:3; v2 <- 2:1
stopifnot(identical(tcrossprod(v, m), v %*% t(m)),
identical(tcrossprod(v, m), crossprod(v, t(m))),
identical(crossprod(m, v2), t(m) %*% v2))
```