sum returns the sum of all the values
present in its arguments.
numeric or complex or logical vectors.
logical. Should missing values (including
This is a generic function: methods can be defined for it
directly or via the
Summary group generic.
For this to work properly, the arguments
... should be
unnamed, and dispatch is on the first argument.
NaN value in
any of the arguments will cause a value of
be returned, otherwise
NaN values are ignored.
Logical true values are regarded as one, false values as zero.
For historical reasons,
NULL is accepted and treated as if it
Loss of accuracy can occur when summing values of different signs: this can even occur for sufficiently long integer inputs if the partial sums would cause integer overflow. Where possible extended-precision accumulators are used, typically well supported with C99 and newer, but possibly platform-dependent.
The sum. If all of the M
... arguments are of type
integer or logical, then the sum is
possible and is
double otherwise. Integer overflow should no
longer happen since R version 3.5.0.
For other argument types it is a length-one numeric
double) or complex vector.
NB: the sum of an empty set is zero, by definition.
This is part of the S4
group generic. Methods for it must use the signature
x, ..., na.rm.
‘plotmath’ for the use of
sum in plot annotation.
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
colSums for row and column sums.
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## Pass a vector to sum, and it will add the elements together. sum(1:5) ## Pass several numbers to sum, and it also adds the elements. sum(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) ## In fact, you can pass vectors into several arguments, and everything gets added. sum(1:2, 3:5) ## If there are missing values, the sum is unknown, i.e., also missing, .... sum(1:5, NA) ## ... unless we exclude missing values explicitly: sum(1:5, NA, na.rm = TRUE)
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