# sum: Sum of Vector Elements

Description Usage Arguments Details Value S4 methods References See Also Examples

## Description

`sum` returns the sum of all the values present in its arguments.

## Usage

 `1` ```sum(..., na.rm = FALSE) ```

## Arguments

 `...` numeric or complex or logical vectors. `na.rm` logical. Should missing values (including `NaN`) be removed?

## Details

This is a generic function: methods can be defined for it directly or via the `Summary` group generic. For this to work properly, the arguments `...` should be unnamed, and dispatch is on the first argument.

If `na.rm` is `FALSE` an `NA` or `NaN` value in any of the arguments will cause a value of `NA` or `NaN` to be returned, otherwise `NA` and `NaN` values are ignored.

Logical true values are regarded as one, false values as zero. For historical reasons, `NULL` is accepted and treated as if it were `integer(0)`.

Loss of accuracy can occur when summing values of different signs: this can even occur for sufficiently long integer inputs if the partial sums would cause integer overflow. Where possible extended-precision accumulators are used, typically well supported with C99 and newer, but possibly platform-dependent.

## Value

The sum. If all of the `...` arguments are of type integer or logical, then the sum is `integer` when possible and is `double` otherwise. Integer overflow should no longer happen since R version 3.5.0. For other argument types it is a length-one numeric (`double`) or complex vector.

NB: the sum of an empty set is zero, by definition.

## S4 methods

This is part of the S4 `Summary` group generic. Methods for it must use the signature `x, ..., na.rm`.

‘plotmath’ for the use of `sum` in plot annotation.

## References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

## See Also

`colSums` for row and column sums.

## Examples

 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13``` ```## Pass a vector to sum, and it will add the elements together. sum(1:5) ## Pass several numbers to sum, and it also adds the elements. sum(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) ## In fact, you can pass vectors into several arguments, and everything gets added. sum(1:2, 3:5) ## If there are missing values, the sum is unknown, i.e., also missing, .... sum(1:5, NA) ## ... unless we exclude missing values explicitly: sum(1:5, NA, na.rm = TRUE) ```