Display aspects of connections.
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logical: if true all connections, including closed ones and the standard ones are displayed. If false only open user-created connections are included.
integer: a row number of the table given by
stderr() are standard
connections corresponding to input, output and error on the console
respectively (and not necessarily to file streams). They are text-mode
connections of class
"terminal" which cannot be opened or
closed, and are read-only, write-only and write-only respectively.
stderr() connections can be
sink (and in some circumstances the
stdout() can be split: see the help page).
The encoding for
stdin() when redirected can
be set by the command-line flag --encoding.
showConnections returns a matrix of information. If a
connection object has been lost or forgotten,
will take a row number from the table and return a connection object
for that connection, which can be used to close the connection,
for example. However, if there is no R level object referring to the
connection it will be closed automatically at the next garbage
collection (except for
closeAllConnections closes (and destroys) all user
connections, restoring all
sink diversions as it does
isatty returns true if the connection is one of the class
"terminal" connections and it is apparently connected to a
terminal, otherwise false. This may not be reliable in embedded
applications, including GUI consoles.
stderr() return connection
showConnections returns a character matrix of information with
a row for each connection, by default only for open non-standard connections.
getConnection returns a connection object, or
stdin() refers to the ‘console’ and not to the C-level
‘stdin’ of the process. The distinction matters in GUI consoles
(which may not have an active ‘stdin’, and if they do it may not
be connected to console input), and also in embedded applications.
If you want access to the C-level file stream ‘stdin’, use
When R is reading a script from a file, the file is the ‘console’: this is traditional usage to allow in-line data (see ‘An Introduction to R’ for an example).
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showConnections(all = TRUE) ## Not run: textConnection(letters) # oops, I forgot to record that one showConnections() # class description mode text isopen can read can write #3 "letters" "textConnection" "r" "text" "opened" "yes" "no" mycon <- getConnection(3) ## End(Not run) c(isatty(stdin()), isatty(stdout()), isatty(stderr()))